"Best nonfiction book of the 20th century." (Time) Volume one of the gripping epic masterpiece, Solzhenitsyn's chilling report of his arrest and interrogation, which exposed to the world the vast bureaucracy of secret police that haunted Soviet society. Features a new foreword by Anne Applebaum. "The greatest and most powerful single indictment of a political regime ever leveled in modern times." (George F. Kennan) "It is impossible to name a book that had a greater effect on the political and moral consciousness of the late 20th century." (David Remnick, The New Yorker) "Solzhenitsyns masterpiece.... The Gulag Archipelago helped create the world we live in today." (Anne Applebaum, Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Gulag: A History, from the foreword)
©2015 Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn (P)2020 HarperCollins Publishers
Drawing on a huge range of sources - letters, memoirs, conversations - Orlando Figes tells the story of how Russians tried to endure life under Stalin. Those who shaped the political system became, very frequently, its victims. Those who were its victims were frequently quite blameless. The Whisperers re-creates the sort of maze in which Russians found themselves, where an unwitting wrong turn could either destroy a family or, perversely, later save it: a society in which everyone spoke in whispers - whether to protect themselves, their families, neighbours or friends - or to inform on them.
©2018 Orlando Figes (P)2018 Audible, Ltd
A long-awaited English translation of the groundbreaking oral history of women in World War II across Europe and Russia - from the winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature A landmark. (Timothy Snyder, author of On Tyranny: Twenty Lessons from the Twentieth Century) For more than three decades, Svetlana Alexievich has been the memory and conscience of the twentieth century. When the Swedish Academy awarded her the Nobel Prize, it cited her invention of a new kind of literary genre, describing her work as a history of emotions...a history of the soul. In The Unwomanly Face of War, Alexievich chronicles the experiences of the Soviet women who fought on the front lines, on the home front, and in the occupied territories. These women - more than a million in total - were nurses and doctors, pilots, tank drivers, machine-gunners, and snipers. They battled alongside men, and yet, after the victory, their efforts and sacrifices were forgotten. Alexievich traveled thousands of miles and visited more than a hundred towns to record these womens stories. Together, this symphony of voices reveals a different aspect of the war - the everyday details of life in combat left out of the official histories. Translated by the renowned Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, The Unwomanly Face of War is a powerful and poignant account of the central conflict of the 20th century, a kaleidoscopic portrait of the human side of war. But why? I asked myself more than once. Why, having stood up for and held their own place in a once absolutely male world, have women not stood up for their history? Their words and feelings? They did not believe themselves. A whole world is hidden from us. Their war remains unknown...I want to write the history of that war. A womens history. (Svetlana Alexievich) Read by Julia Emelin, Yelena Shmulenson, Allen Lewis Rickman, and Alan Winter THE WINNER OF THE NOBEL PRIZE IN LITERATURE [F]or her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time. A mighty documentarian and a mighty artist... Her books are woven from hundreds of interviews, in a hybrid form of reportage and oral history that has the quality of a documentary film on paper. But Alexievich is anything but a simple recorder and transcriber of found voices; she has a writerly voice of her own which emerges from the chorus she assembles, with great style and authority, and she shapes her investigations of Soviet and post-Soviet life and death into epic dramatic chronicles as universally essential as Greek tragedies. (The New Yorker)
©2017 Svetlana Alexievich (P)2017 Random House Audio
"Had I just 10,000 Cossacks, I would have conquered the whole world." (Napoleon Bonaparte) "Save us Lord, from Cossacks." (Sir Wilson, reporting the prayers of conquered Germans, 1813) The modern myth of the Cossack presents striking images of a stern warrior mounted on horseback, with a long woolen coat, papakha (distinctive tall fur cap ) and fur-lined cloak, with bandoliers holding large-caliber bullets crisscrossing his chest. The warrior is armed with a mixture of rifle, lance, daggers and pistols, but he always has his signature weapons: the shashka (a single-edged, guard-less, slightly curved saber originally designed by the Circassian foes) and the nagyka (short, thick whip of braided leather with a heavy weight worked into the end originally designed for fighting off wolves but more commonly used in later years against enemies of the state in the streets of Moscow or Odessa). As enemies conjured up the Cossack as semi-tamed steppe barbarian, a dog of the state, and the fist of the Czar, it's no surprise they were terrified. Even as the origins of these ferocious fighters remain murky and obscure, the Cossacks have continued their growing international appearance with the outbreak of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict in 2014. The conflict over the Crimea and the southeastern Donbass region has had thoroughly Cossack overtones; on the one hand, the Ukrainian Nationalists view themselves as the descendants of the freedom minded Cossack Republics and on the other hand, Russia has leaned heavily upon Cossack "volunteers" to staff its informal militias in the Donbass and to seize and police Crimea.
©2012 Charles River Editors (P)2016 Charles River Editors
Tantor Audio presents the complete audio version of the long-awaited one-volume campaign history from the leading experts of the decisive clash of Nazi and Soviet forces at Stalingrad. Stalingrad is an abridged edition of the five-volume Stalingrad Trilogy.
©2017 The University Press of Kansas (P)2017 Tantor
While the Battle of Kursk has long captivated World War II aficionados, it has been unjustly overlooked by historians. Drawing on the masses of new information made available by the opening of the Russian military archives, Dennis E. Showalter at last corrects that error. This battle was the critical turning point on World War II's Eastern Front. In the aftermath of the Red Army's brutal repulse of the Germans at Stalingrad, the stakes could not have been higher. More than 3,000,000 men and 8,000 tanks met in the heart of the Soviet Union, some 400 miles south of Moscow, in an encounter that both sides knew would reshape the war. The adversaries were at the peak of their respective powers. On both sides, the generals and the dictators they served were in agreement on where, why, and how to fight. The result was a furious death grapple between two of history's most formidable fighting forces - a battle that might possibly have been the greatest of all time. In Armor and Blood, Showalter recreates every aspect of this dramatic struggle. He offers expert perspective on strategy and tactics at the highest levels, from the halls of power in Moscow and Berlin to the battlefield command posts on both sides. But it is the author's exploration of the human dimension of armored combat that truly distinguishes this book. In the classic tradition of John Keegan's The Face of Battle, Showalter's narrative crackles with insight into the unique dynamics of tank warfare - its effect on men's minds as well as their bodies. Scrupulously researched, exhaustively documented, and vividly illustrated, this book is a chilling testament to man's ability to build and to destroy. When the dust settled, the field at Kursk was nothing more than a wasteland of steel carcasses, dead soldiers, and smoking debris. The Soviet victory ended German hopes of restoring their position on the Eastern Front, and put the Red Army on the road to Berlin. Armor and Blood presents listeners with what will likely be the authoritative study of Kursk for decades to come.
©2013 Dennis Showalter (P)2013 Tantor
A magnificent new biography that revolutionizes our understanding of Stalin and his world. It has the quality of myth: A poor cobbler's son, a seminarian from an oppressed outer province of the Russian Empire, reinvents himself as a revolutionary and finds a leadership role within a small group of marginal zealots. When the old world is unexpectedly brought down in a total war, the band seizes control of the country, and the new regime it founds as the vanguard of a new world order is ruthlessly dominated from within by the former seminarian until he stands as the absolute ruler of a vast and terrible state apparatus, with dominion over Eurasia. We think we know the story well. Remarkably, Stephen Kotkin's epic new biography shows us how much we still have to learn. Volume One of Stalin begins and ends in January 1928 as Stalin boards a train bound for Siberia, about to embark upon the greatest gamble of his political life. He is now the ruler of the largest country in the world, but a poor and backward one, far behind the great capitalist countries in industrial and military power, encircled on all sides. In Siberia, Stalin conceives of the largest program of social reengineering ever attempted: the root-and-branch uprooting and collectivization of agriculture and industry across the entire Soviet Union. To stand up to the capitalists he will force into being an industrialized, militarized, collectivized great power is an act of will. Millions will die, and many more will suffer, but Stalin will push through to the end against all resistance and doubts. Where did such power come from? The product of a decade of scrupulous and intrepid research, Stalin contains a host of astonishing revelations. Kotkin gives an intimate first-ever view of the Bolshevik regimes inner geography, bringing to the fore materials from Soviet military intelligence and the secret police.
©2014 Stephen Kotkin (P)2014 Recorded Books
Josef Stalin exercised supreme power in the Soviet Union from 1929 until his death in 1953. During that quarter century, by Oleg Khlevniuk's estimate, he caused the imprisonment and execution of no fewer than a million Soviet citizens per year. Millions more were victims of famine directly resulting from Stalin's policies. What drove him toward such ruthlessness? This essential biography, by the author most deeply familiar with the vast archives of the Soviet era, offers an unprecedented, fine-grained portrait of Stalin, the man and dictator. Without mythologizing Stalin as either benevolent or an evil genius, Khlevniuk resolves numerous controversies about specific events in the dictator's life while assembling many hundreds of previously unknown letters, memos, reports, and diaries into a comprehensive, compelling narrative of a life that altered the course of world history. In brief, revealing prologues to each chapter, Khlevniuk takes his reader into Stalin's favorite dacha, where the innermost circle of Soviet leadership gathered as their vozhd lay dying. Chronological chapters then illuminate major themes: Stalin's childhood, his involvement in the Revolution and the early Bolshevik government under Lenin, his assumption of undivided power and mandate for industrialization and collectivization, the Terror, World War II, and the postwar period. At the book's conclusion, the author presents a cogent warning against nostalgia for the Stalinist era. Cover image: "Stalin is our banner!" poster, 1948. Collection of the Russian State Library, Moscow. © Heritage Image Partnership Ltd/Alamy, Reportage/Archival image.
©2015 Oleg Khlevniuk; Yale University (Translation) (P)2018 Audible, Inc.
A classic work of World War II history that brings to vivid, dramatic life one of the bloodiest battles ever fought - and the beginning of the end for the Third Reich. On August 5, 1942, giant pillars of dust rose over the Russian steppe, marking the advance of the 6th Army, an elite German combat unit dispatched by Hitler to capture the industrial city of Stalingrad and press on to the oil fields of Azerbaijan. The Germans were supremely confident; in three years, they had not suffered a single defeat. The Luftwaffe had already bombed the city into ruins. German soldiers hoped to complete their mission and be home in time for Christmas. The siege of Stalingrad lasted five months, one week, and three days. Nearly two million men and women died, and the 6th Army was completely destroyed. Considered by many historians to be the turning point of World War II in Europe, the Soviet Army's victory foreshadowed Hitler's downfall and the rise of a communist superpower. Best-selling author William Craig spent five years researching this epic clash of military titans, traveling to three continents in order to review documents and interview hundreds of survivors. Enemy at the Gates is the enthralling result: the definitive account of one of the most important battles in world history. The book was the inspiration for the 2001 film of the same name, starring Joseph Fiennes and Jude Law.
©1973 William Craig; This edition published in 2015 by Open Road Integrated Media, Inc. (P)2015 Audible, Inc.
Brought to you by Penguin. From the prize-winning author of Ring of Steel, a gripping history of the First World War's longest and most terrible siege. In the autumn of 1914 Europe was at war. The battling powers had already suffered casualties on a scale previously unimaginable. On both the Western and Eastern fronts elaborate war plans lay in ruins and had been discarded in favour of desperate improvisation. In the West this resulted in the remorseless world of the trenches; in the East all eyes were focused on the old, beleaguered Austro-Hungarian fortress of Przemysl. The siege that unfolded at Przemysl was the longest of the whole war. In the defence of the fortress and the struggle to relieve it Austria-Hungary suffered some 800,000 casualties. Almost unknown in the West, this was one of the great turning points of the conflict. If the Russians had broken through they could have invaded Central Europe, but by the time the fortress fell their strength was so sapped they could go no further. Alexander Watson, prize-winning author of Ring of Steel, has written one of the great epics of the First World War. Comparable to Stalingrad in 1942-3, Przemysl shaped the course of Europe's future. Neither Russians nor Austro-Hungarians ever recovered from their disasters. Using a huge range of sources, Watson brilliantly re-creates a world of long-gone empires, broken armies and a cut-off community sliding into chaos. The siege was central to the war itself but also a chilling harbinger of what would engulf the entire region in the coming decades, as nationalism, anti-Semitism and an exterminatory fury took hold.
©2019 Alexander Watson (P)2019 Penguin Audio
From the author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning Gulag and the National Book Award finalist Iron Curtain, a revelatory history of one of Stalin's greatest crimes - the consequences of which still resonate today. In 1929 Stalin launched his policy of agricultural collectivization - in effect a second Russian Revolution - which forced millions of peasants off their land and onto collective farms. The result was a catastrophic famine, the most lethal in European history. At least five million people died between 1931 and 1933 in the USSR. But instead of sending relief, the Soviet state made use of the catastrophe to rid itself of a political problem. In Red Famine, Anne Applebaum argues that more than three million of those dead were Ukrainians who perished not because they were accidental victims of a bad policy but because the state deliberately set out to kill them. Applebaum proves what has long been suspected: After a series of rebellions unsettled the province, Stalin set out to destroy the Ukrainian peasantry. The state sealed the republic's borders and seized all available food. Starvation set in rapidly, and people ate anything: grass, tree bark, dogs, corpses. In some cases they killed one another for food. Devastating and definitive, Red Famine captures the horror of ordinary people struggling to survive extraordinary evil. Today, Russia, the successor to the Soviet Union, has placed Ukrainian independence in its sights once more. Applebaum's compulsive narrative recalls one of the worst crimes of the 20th century and shows how it may foreshadow a new threat to the political order in the 21st.
©2017 Anne Applebaum (P)2017 Random House Audio
From critically acclaimed Eastern Front expert Prit Buttar comes this detailed and engrossing account of the war on the Eastern Front as the German forces were driven back following the Battle of Kursk. Making use of the extensive memoirs of German and Russian soldiers to bring their story to life, the narrative follows on from On A Knife's Edge, which described the encirclement and destruction of the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad and the offensives and counter-offensives that followed throughout the winter of 1942-43. Beginning towards the end of the Battle of Kursk, Retribution explores the massive Soviet offensive that followed the end of Operation Zitadelle, which saw depleted and desperate German troops forced out of Western Ukraine. In this title, Buttar describes in detail the little-known series of near-constant battles that saw a weakened German army confronted by a tactically sophisticated force of over six million Soviet troops. As a result, the Wehrmacht was driven back to the Dnepr and German forces remaining in the Kuban Peninsula south of Rostov were forced back into the Crimea, a retreat which would become one of many in the months that followed.
©2019 Prit Buttar (P)2019 Tantor
An award-winning historian plumbs the depths of Hitler and Stalin's vicious regimes, and shows the extent to which they brutalized the world around them. Two 20th century tyrants stand apart from all the rest in terms of their ruthlessness and the degree to which they changed the world around them. Briefly allies during World War II, Adolph Hitler and Josef Stalin then tried to exterminate each other in sweeping campaigns unlike anything the modern world had ever seen, affecting soldiers and civilians alike. Millions of miles of Eastern Europe were ruined in their fight to the death, millions of lives sacrificed. Laurence Rees has met more people who had direct experience of working for Hitler and Stalin than any other historian. Using their evidence he has pieced together a compelling comparative portrait of evil, in which idealism is polluted by bloody pragmatism, and human suffering is used casually as a political tool. It's a jaw-dropping description of two regimes stripped of moral anchors and doomed to destroy each other, and those caught up in the vicious magnetism of their leadership.
©2020 Laurence Rees (P)2020 PublicAffairs
The epic tale of the rise to power of Russia's current president - the only complete biography in English - that fully captures his emergence from shrouded obscurity and deprivation to become one of the most consequential and complicated leaders in modern history, by the former New York Times Moscow bureau chief. In a gripping narrative of Putin's rise to power as Russia's president, Steven Lee Myers recounts Putin's origins - from his childhood of abject poverty in Leningrad to his ascension through the ranks of the KGB and his eventual consolidation of rule. Along the way world events familiar to listeners, such as September 11th and Russia's war in Georgia in 2008, as well as the 2014 annexation of Crimea and the ongoing conflict in Ukraine, are presented from never-before-seen perspectives. This audiobook is a grand, staggering achievement and a breathtaking look at one man's rule. On one hand, Putin's many reforms - from tax cuts to an expansion of property rights - have helped reshape the potential of millions of Russians whose only experience of democracy had been crime, poverty, and instability after the fall of the Soviet Union. On the other hand, Putin has ushered in a new authoritarianism, unyielding in his brutal repression of revolts and squashing of dissent. Still, he retains widespread support from the Russian public. The New Tsar is a narrative tour de force, deeply researched and utterly necessary for anyone fascinated by the formidable and ambitious Vladimir Putin but also for those interested in the world and what a newly assertive Russia might mean for the future.
©2015 Steven Lee Myers (P)2015 Random House Audio
Germany's winter campaign of 1941-1942 has commonly been seen as its "first defeat". In Retreat from Moscow, David Stahel argues that, in fact, it was its first strategic success in the east. Though the Red Army managed to push the Wehrmacht back from Moscow, the Germans lost far fewer men (one to six), frustrated their enemy's strategic plan, and emerged in the spring unbroken and poised to recapture the initiative. Hitler's new strategic plan called for holding important Russian industrial cities, which the German army would do. And the Soviet plan as of January 1942 aimed for nothing less than the destruction of Army Group Centre, but in fact, not a single German army, corps, or division was ever successfully destroyed. Lacking the professionalism, training, and experience of the Wehrmacht, the Red Army mounted an offensive that attempted to break German lines in countless head-on assaults, which led to far more tactical defeats than victories. Through journals, memoirs, and wartime correspondence, Stahel takes us into the Wolf's Lair and reveals a German command at war with itself. And through soldiers' diaries and letters home, he paints a rich portrait of life and death on the front, where the men of the Ostheer fight against frostbite as much as they do Soviet artillery.
©2019 David Stahel (P)2019 Tantor
Bloomsbury presents The Reckoning by Prit Buttar, read by Richard Trinder. By the end of 1944 the Red Army was poised on the very frontiers of the Third Reich. How had the once unstoppable, mighty Wehrmacht faltered so disastrously? Certainly it had suffered defeats before, in particular the vast catastrophe of Stalingrad, but it was in 1944 that the war was ultimately lost. It was no longer a case of if but rather when the Red Army would be at the gates of Berlin. Prit Buttar retraces the ebb and flow of the various battles and campaigns fought throughout the Ukraine and Romania in 1944. January and February saw Army Group South encircled in the Korsun Pocket. Although many of the encircled troops did escape, in part due to Soviet intelligence and command failures, the Red Army would endeavour to not make the same mistakes again. Indeed, in the coming months the Red Army would demonstrate an ability to learn and improve, reinventing itself as a war-winning machine, demonstrated clearly in its success in the Iasi-Kishinev operation. The view of the Red Army as a huge, unskilled horde that rolled over everything in its path is just one myth that The Reckoning reassess. So too does it re-evaluate the apparent infallibility of German military commanders, the denial of any involvement in (or often even knowledge of) the heinous crimes committed in the occupied territories by German forces and the ineffectiveness of Axis allies, such as the Romanians at Iasi, to withstand the Soviet forces. Like all myths, these contain many truths, but also a great many distortions, all of which are skilfully unpicked and analysed in this powerful retelling of 1944 on the Eastern Front.
©2020 Prit Buttar (P)2020 Bloomsbury Publishing Plc
The massive offensives on the Eastern Front during 1915 are too often overshadowed by the events in Western Europe, but the scale and ferocity of the clashes between Imperial Germany, Hapsburg Austria-Hungary, and Tsarist Russia were greater than anything seen on the Western Front and ultimately as important to the final outcome of the war. Now, with the work of internationally renowned Eastern Front expert Prit Buttar, this fascinating story of the unknown side of the First World War is finally being told. In Germany Ascendant, Buttar examines the critical events of 1915, as the German Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive triggered the collapse of Russian forces, coming tantalizingly close to knocking Russia out of the war altogether. Throughout the year, German dominance on the Eastern Front grew - but stubborn Russian resistance forced the continuation of a two-front war that would drain Germany's reserves of men and equipment. From the bitter fighting in the Carpathian Mountains, where the cragged peaks witnessed thousands of deaths and success was measured in feet and inches, to the sweeping advances through Serbia where the capital Belgrade was seized, to the almost medieval battle for the fortress of Przemysl, this is a staggeringly ambitious history of some the most important moments of the First World War.
©2015 Prit Buttar (P)2018 Tantor
Just like it was taken for granted that houses could be abandoned and slowly decay, so it was taken for granted that people died in prisons, and that it was possible that no one would really ever know the cause of death. This is the nature of totalitarianism. In 1993-94 Sigrid Rausing completed her anthropological fieldwork on the peninsula of Noarootsi, a former Soviet border protection zone in Estonia. Abandoned watchtowers dotted the coastline, and the huge fields of the Lenin collective farm were lying fallow, waiting for claims from former owners, fleeing war and Soviet and Nazi occupation. Rausings conversations with the local people touched on many subjects: the economic privations of post-Soviet existence, the bewildering influx of western products, and the Swedish background of many of them. In Everything Is Wonderful Rausing reflects on history, political repression, and the story of the minority Swedes in the area. She lived and worked amongst the villagers, witnessing their transition from repression to freedom, and from Soviet neglect to post-Soviet austerity.
©2013 Sigrid Rausing; If I Wanted to Go Back by Jaan Kaplinski, translated from Estonian by Jaan Kaplinski and Sam Hamill. (P)2014 Audible Inc.
During World War II, the Allied leaders banded together, forged a great victory - and created a new and dangerous post-war world. In the summer of 1941, Harry Hopkins, Franklin Roosevelt's trusted advisor, arrived in Moscow to assess whether the US should send aid to Russia as it had to Britain. Unofficially, he was there to determine whether Josef Stalin - the man who had killed over six million Ukrainians during the 1930s - was worth saving. In this riveting and sweeping narrative, author John Kelly chronicles the turbulent wartime relationship between the great leaders - Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin - and military commanders of America, Britain, and the Soviet Union. Faced with the greatest challenge of the century, the Allied leaders and their war managers struggled against a common enemy - and each other. The story behind how victory was forged is an epic story, rich in drama, passion and larger-than-life personalities. The Allies eventually triumphed, but at what cost? Using his trademark character-rich writing style and focusing on unique, unknown, and unexplored aspects of the story, Kelly offers a fresh perspective on the decision-making that changed the course of the war - and the course of history. Saving Stalin brings to vivid life the epic story of the century's greatest human catastrophe. It is an unforgettable master work in historical narrative.
©2020 John Kelly (P)2020 John Kelly
If you want to learn about the Soviet Union and Eastern Front during World War 2, then pay attention... No nation suffered more losses during the Second World War than the Soviet Union. The figure most historians recognize as roughly accurate is 20 million. The exact figure is impossible to tally for a number of reasons: destroyed records, inexact pre-war records, Soviet politicization of the population figures before and after the war, and much more. No matter what the exact total was, what is known is that the Soviet population only recovered its losses from the war in the late 1950s. For those of you unfamiliar with WWII, the combined losses sustained by the United States and Great Britain were just over 800,000 dead. The Soviets lost that many people during the Siege of Leningrad alone. In Soviet Union in World War 2: A Captivating Guide to Life in the Soviet Union and Some of the Main Events on the Eastern Front Such as the Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of Kursk, and Siege of Leningrad, you will discover topics such as: Before the War Stalinism 1938 and 1939 Interlude Barbarossa War of Extermination The Major Battles And much, much more! So, if you want to learn more about the Soviet Union and Eastern Front during World War 2, scroll up and click the "buy now" button!
©2020 Captivating History (P)2020 Captivating History
If you want to discover the captivating history of the Cold War, then pay attention.... The seeds of the Cold War were sown toward the end of World War II. During the war, the United States and the Soviet Union were reluctant partners. The communist doctrine of the Soviets was decidedly at odds with the US notion of capitalism, free enterprise, and rugged individualism. But as is often the case in history, despite their differences, America and Soviet Russia had a common enemy that brought them together - Nazi Germany. But soon after Truman took over the presidency of the United States, American and Soviet relations began to rapidly go south. Before the war was even over, disagreements arose over how the postwar world should be administered. In The Cold War: A Captivating Guide to the Tense Conflict Between the United States of America and the Soviet Union Following World War II, you will discover topics such as: Berlin: The lines have been drawn Stemming the tide of communism in East Asia Fighting the soviets for supremacy in space How the Cold War calculus affected the Middle East Cuba, Vietnam, and increasing social unrest An East African cold war Cold War secrets and a place called Area 51 Soviets, Afghanistan, and a little bit of salt Ronald Reagan and the evil empire Poland, a Polish pope, and Cold War solidarity Star Wars: the biggest bluff in history The Cold War comes to a close And much, much more! So, if you want to learn more about the Cold War, scroll up and click the "Buy Now" button!
©2020 Captivating History (P)2020 Captivating History
In Plutopia, Kate Brown draws on official records and dozens of interviews to tell the extraordinary stories of Richland, Washington, and Ozersk, Russia - the first two cities in the world to produce plutonium. To contain secrets, American and Soviet leaders created plutopias - communities of nuclear families living in highly subsidized, limited-access atomic cities. Fully employed and medically monitored, the residents of Richland and Ozersk enjoyed all the pleasures of consumer society while nearby, migrants, prisoners, and soldiers were banned from plutopia - they lived in temporary "staging grounds" and often performed the most dangerous work at the plant. Brown shows that the plants' segregation of permanent and temporary workers and of nuclear and non-nuclear zones created a bubble of immunity where dumps and accidents were glossed over and plant managers freely embezzled and polluted. In four decades the Hanford plant near Richland and the Maiak plant near Ozersk each issued at least 200 million curies of radioactive isotopes into the surrounding environment. An untold and profoundly important piece of Cold War history, Plutopia invites listeners to consider the nuclear footprint left by the arms race and the enormous price of paying for it.
©2013 Kate Brown (P)2017 Tantor
Emma Goldman (1869-1940) was an American anarchist. My Further Disillusionment in Russia is the second half of her experiences in the Soviet Union in the early 1920s, after the Russian Revolution.
Public Domain (P)2020 Museum Audiobooks
The authoritative account of the American expedition of 1918-1920, as told by the commanding officer.
Public Domain (P)2020 Historical Recordings
Discover the captivating history of Russia! Russia, or the Russian Federation, as it is officially known, is the worlds largest country and covers almost a sixth of the global landmass. The country is often associated with harsh climates and autocratic government. The shadow of communism and the Cold War continues to influence global attitudes toward Russia. This new Captivating History audiobook serves as an overview of Russian history over the span of more than a millennium, from the foundation of the Russian state by the Viking Prince Rurik in AD 862 until the collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. In Russian History: A Captivating Guide to the History of Russia, Including Events Such as the Mongol Invasion, the Napoleonic Invasion, Reforms of Peter the Great, the Fall of the Soviet Union, and More, you will discover topics such as: The foundation of Rus The Christianization of Rus The fragmentation and subjugation of Rus The rise of Muscovy Overthrowing the Tatar yoke Gathering the Russian lands The birth of a dynasty The road to reform Imperial majesty Enlightened despotism Reform and reaction War and revolution Terror and upheaval The Great Patriotic War Cold War Reform and collapse And much, much more! So, listen to this audiobook now if you want to discover more about the startling history of Russia!
©2018 Captivating History (P)2018 Captivating History
When Mikhail Gorbachev became the leader of the Soviet Union in 1985, the USSR was one of the world's two superpowers. By 1989, his liberal policies of perestroika and glasnost had permanently transformed Soviet Communism and had made enemies of radicals on the right and left. By 1990 he, more than anyone else, had ended the Cold War, and in 1991, after barely escaping from a coup attempt, he unintentionally presided over the collapse of the Soviet Union he had tried to save. In the first comprehensive biography of the final Soviet leader, William Taubman shows how a peasant boy became the Soviet system's gravedigger, how he clambered to the top of a system designed to keep people like him down, how he found common ground with America's arch-conservative president Ronald Reagan, and how he permitted the USSR and its East European empire to break apart without using force to preserve them. Throughout, Taubman portrays the many sides of Gorbachev's unique character that, by Gorbachev's own admission, make him "difficult to understand". Was he in fact a truly great leader, or was he brought low in the end by his own shortcomings as well as by the unyielding forces he faced? Drawing on interviews with Gorbachev himself, transcripts and documents from the Russian archives, and interviews with Kremlin aides and adversaries as well as foreign leaders, Taubman's intensely personal portrait extends to Gorbachev's remarkable marriage to a woman he deeply loved and to the family that they raised together. Nuanced and poignant yet unsparing and honest, this sweeping account has all the amplitude of a great Russian novel.
©2017 William Taubman (P)2017 Recorded Books
On October 4, 1957, a time of Cold War paranoia, the Soviet Union secretly launched the Earth's first artificial moon. No bigger than a basketball, the tiny satellite was powered by a car battery. Yet, for all its simplicity, Sputnik stunned the world. Based on extensive research in the US and newly opened archives in the former USSR, Red Moon Rising tells the story of five extraordinary months in the history of technology and the rivalry between two superpowers. It takes us inside the Kremlin and introduces the Soviet engineer Korolev, the charismatic, politically-minded visionary who motivated Khruschev to support what others dismissed as a ridiculous program. Korolev is virtually unknown to most Americans, yet it is because of him that NASA exists, that college loan programs were started in the U.S., and that Kennedy and Johnson became presidents. Character driven, suspenseful, and dramatic, Red Moon Rising unveils the politics, people, science, and mindset behind a critical and transformative world event.
©2007 Matthew Brzezinski (P)2007 HighBridge Company
Featuring an exclusive postscript read by the author. Closely modeled on his NATO experience of war gaming future conflicts, War with Russia is a chilling account of where we are heading if we fail to recognise the threat posed by the Russian president. Written by the recently retired Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe and endorsed by senior military figures, this audiobook shows how war with Russia could erupt, with the bloodiest and most appalling consequences, if the necessary steps are not taken urgently. President Putin said, 'We have all the reasons to believe that the policy of containment of Russia which was happening in the 18th, 19th and 20th century is still going on....' And 'if you press the spring, it will release at some point. Something you should remember.' Like any strongman, the Russian president's reputation for strength is everything. Lose momentum, fail to give the people what they want, and he fails. The president has already demonstrated that he has no intention of failing. He has already started a lethal dynamic which, unless checked right now, could see him invade the Baltic States. Russia's invasion and seizure of Georgia in 2008 was our Rhineland moment. We ignored the warning signs - as we did back in the 1930s - and we made it business as usual. Crimea in 2014 was the president's Sudetenland moment, and again he got away with it. Since 2014 Russia has invaded Ukraine. The Baltics could be next. Our political leaders assume that nuclear deterrence will save us. General Sir Richard Shirreff shows us why this will not wash.
©2016 Strategia Worldwide Limited (P)2017 Hodder & Stoughton
In 1939, tiny Finland waged war - the kind of war that spawns legends - against the mighty Soviet Union, and yet, their epic struggle has been largely ignored. Guerrillas on skis, heroic single-handed attacks on tanks, unfathomable endurance, and the charismatic leadership of one of this century's true military geniuses - these are the elements of both the Finnish victory and a gripping tale of war.
©1991 William R. Trotter (P)2018 Tantor
At 01:23:40 on April 26th 1986, Alexander Akimov pressed the emergency shutdown button at Chernobyl's fourth nuclear reactor. It was an act that forced the permanent evacuation of a city, killed thousands, and crippled the Soviet Union. The event spawned decades of conflicting, exaggerated, and inaccurate stories. This book, the result of five years of research, presents an accessible but comprehensive account of what really happened - from the desperate fight to prevent a burning reactor core from irradiating eastern Europe, to the self-sacrifice of the heroic men who entered fields of radiation so strong that machines wouldn't work, to the surprising truth about the legendary "Chernobyl diver", all the way through to the USSR's final show-trial. The historical narrative is interwoven with a story of the author's own spontaneous journey to Ukraine's still-abandoned city of Pripyat and the wider Chernobyl Zone.
©2016 Andrew Leatherbarrow (P)2016 Tantor
Stuart Goldman convincingly argues that a little-known, but intense, Soviet-Japanese conflict along the Manchurian- Mongolian frontier at Nomonhan influenced the outbreak of World War II and shaped the course of the war. The author draws on Japanese, Soviet, and western sources to put the seemingly obscure conflict - actually a small undeclared war - into its proper global geo-strategic perspective.The book describes how the Soviets, in response to a border conflict provoked by Japan, launched an offensive in August 1939 that wiped out the Japanese forces at Nomonhan. At the same time, Stalin signed the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, allowing Hitler to invade Poland. The timing of these military and diplomatic strikes was not coincidental, according to the author. In forming an alliance with Hitler that left Tokyo diplomatically isolated, Stalin succeeded in avoiding a two-front war. He saw the pact with the Nazis as a way to pit Germany against Britain and France, leaving the Soviet Union on the sidelines to eventually pick up the spoils from the European conflict, while at the same time giving him a free hand to smash the Japanese at Nomonhan. Goldman not only demonstrates the linkage between the Nomonhan conflict, the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, and the outbreak of World War II , but also shows how Nomonhan influenced Japan's decision to go to war with the United States and thus change the course of history. The book details Gen. Georgy Zhukov's brilliant victory at Nomonhan that led to his command of the Red Army in 1941 and his success in stopping the Germans at Moscow with reinforcements from the Soviet Far East. Such a strategy was possible, the author contends, only because of Japan's decision not to attack the Soviet Far East but to seize the oil-rich Dutch East Indies and attack Pearl Harbor instead. Goldman credits Tsuji Masanobu, an influential Japanese officer who instigated the Nomonhan conflict and survived the debacle, with urging his superiors not to take on the Soviets again in 1941, but instead to go to war with the United States.
©2012 Stuart D. Goldman (P)2013 Audible, Inc.
For 30 years, much of the West looked on with disdain as the Bolsheviks took power in Russia and created and consolidated the Soviet Union. As bad as Vladimir Lenin seemed in the early 20th century, Joseph Stalin was so much worse that Churchill later remarked of Lenin, Their worst misfortune was his birth... their next worst his death. Stalin had ruled with an iron fist for nearly 30 years before his death in 1953, which may or may not have been murder, just as Stalin was preparing to conduct another purge. With his death, Soviet strongman and long-time Stalinist Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971), became the Soviet premier. A barely known figure outside of the Eastern bloc, Khrushchev was derided as a buffoon by one Western diplomat and mocked for his physical appearance by others, but any Western hopes that he would prove a more conciliatory figure than Stalin were quickly snuffed out as the hard-line Khrushchev embraced confrontational stances. Personal histrionics aside, Khrushchev meant business when dealing with the West, especially the United States and its young president, John F. Kennedy. After sensing weakness and a lack of fortitude in Kennedy, Khrushchev made his most audacious and ultimately costly decision by attempting to place nuclear warheads at advanced, offensive bases located in Cuba, right off the American mainland. As it turned out, the Cuban Missile Crisis would show the Kennedy Administrations resolve, force Khrushchev to back down, and ultimately sow the seeds of Khrushchevs fall from power. By the time he died in 1971, he had been declared a non-citizen of the nation he had ruled for nearly 20 years. Leonid Brezhnev became First Secretary of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union in late 1964 after a plot to oust Khrushchev. Little is remembered in the public imagination about Brezhnev in comparison to Mikhail Gorbachev, Vladimir Lenin, or Joseph Stalin, despite the fact Brezhnev ruled the USSR from 1964-1982, longer than any Soviet leader other than Stalin. In fact, he held power during a tumultuous era that changed the world in remarkable ways, and that era has been favorably remembered by many former Soviet citizens. It marked a period of relative calm and even prosperity after the destruction of World War II and the tensions brought about by Khrushchev. Foremost amongst Brezhnevs achievements would be the détente period in the early 1970s, when the Soviets and Americans came to a number of agreements that reduced Cold War pressures and the alarming threat of nuclear war. On the other side of the balance sheet, Brezhnev oversaw a malaise in Soviet society that later became known as an era of stagnation during which the Communist Bloc fell far behind the West in terms of economic output and standard of living. His regime also became notorious for its human rights abuses.
©2019 Charles River Editors (P)2019 Charles River Editors
If you want to learn about the Russian Revolution but don't feel like reading or listening to a boring textbook, then keep reading.... The Russian Revolution was the most important and progressive political event of the 20th century. There is a lot to learn from these explosive political episodes and many remarkable stories to discover. But despite this, many people are reluctant to learn about the Russian Revolution because it can require one to go through heavy and, sometimes, overly analytical texts. But that is about to change. This new captivating history audiobook is designed to be a simple yet educational guide, so you can learn the most crucial events of the Russian Revolution while hopefully enjoying yourself. The Russian Revolution: A Captivating Guide to the February and October Revolutions and the Rise of the Soviet Union Led by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks includes topics such as: Twilight of the tsars The midnight train Dual power Return from exile The July days The abortive coup Ten days that shook the world Peace, land, and bread Defending the revolution Listen to this audiobook now to learn more about the Russian Revolution!
©2018 Captivating History (P)2018 Captivating History
At the end of September 1941, more than a million German soldiers lined up along the frontline just 180 miles west of Moscow. They were well trained, confident, and had good reasons to hope that the war in the East would be over with one last offensive. Facing them was an equally large Soviet force, but whose soldiers were neither as well trained nor as confident. When the Germans struck, disaster soon befell the Soviet defenders. German panzer spearheads cut through enemy defenses and thrust deeply to encircle most of the Soviet soldiers on the approaches to Moscow. Within a few weeks, most of them marched into captivity, where a grim fate awaited them. Despite the overwhelming initial German success, however, the Soviet capital did not fall. German combat units as well as supply transport were bogged down in mud caused by autumn rains. General Zhukov was called back to Moscow and given the desperate task to recreate defense lines west of Moscow. The mud allowed him time to accomplish this, and when the Germans again began to attack in November, they met stiffer resistance. Even so, they came perilously close to the capital, and if the vicissitudes of weather had cooperated, would have seized it. Though German units were also fighting desperately by now, the Soviet build-up soon exceeded their own. The Drive on Moscow: Operation Taifun, 1941 is based on numerous archival records, personal diaries, letters, and other sources. It recreates the battle from the perspective of the soldiers as well as the generals. The battle, not fought in isolation, had a crucial role in the overall German strategy in the East, and its outcome reveals why the failure of the German assault on Moscow may well have been true turning point of World War II. Niklas Zetterling is a researcher at the Swedish Defense College. Along with Anders Frankson he has previously written Kursk 1943: A Statistical Analysis and The Korsun Pocket: The Encirclement and Breakout of a German Army in the East, 1944. Both authors currently live in Sweden.
©2012 Niklas Zetterling and Anders Frankson (P)2013 Audible, Inc.
One fateful night on 1986, what the people of the region refer to as the peaceful atom turned against them and wreaked havoc on their lives forever. In a few days time, they would find themselves boarding hundreds of buses to escape from an invisible enemy that made their skin blister and their insides rot. This enemy would pursue them years after chasing them from their homes, only to cause serious illnesses to their bodies. The enemys name is "Radiation". A routine safety check would result in the biggest meltdown that mankind has ever encountered.
©2019 Bluesource and Friends (P)2020 Bluesource and Friends
The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a grueling debacle that has striking lessons for American foreign policy today. In The Great Gamble, Gregory Feifer examines the war from the perspective of the soldiers on the ground. During the last years of the Cold War, the Soviet Union sent some of its most elite troops to unfamiliar lands in Central Asia to fight a vaguely defined enemy, which eventually defeated their superior number with unconventional tactics. Although the Soviet leadership initially saw the invasion as a victory, many Russian soldiers came to view the war as a demoralizing and devastating defeat, the consequences of which had a substantial impact on the Soviet Union and its collapse. Feifer's extensive research includes fascinating interviews with participants from both sides of the conflict. In gripping detail, he vividly depicts the invasion of a volatile country that no power has ever successfully conquered. Parallels between the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the U.S. invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq are impossible to ignore: Both conflicts were waged amid vague ideological rhetoric about freedom. Both were roundly condemned by the outside world for trying to impose their favored forms of government on countries with very different ways of life. And both seem destined to end on uncertain terms. The Great Gamble tells an unforgettable story full of drama, action, and political intrigue whose relevance in our own time is greater than ever.
©2008 Gregory Feifer (P)2009 Tantor
The history of Ukraine is a fascinating story of how cultures, political systems, religions, and power have met, intersected, morphed, and expanded. The region was relatively sparsely populated for much of ancient history, a wilderness of rivers, forests, and steppes, but that does not detract from the rich historical development of the region. A huge area, Ukraine is wedged between the continents of Asia and Europe, and its position as a crossroads ensured there was fierce competition for influence there. Historians have called the formation of Ukraine the establishment of a unity among three zones...the ports of Crimea and the coast, the rich steppe heartland, and the forests, based around the themes of geography, ecology and culture. Todays Ukraine is a huge country, incorporating an area over 600,000 square kilometers and home to 42 million people. It stretches from the Crimean Peninsula on the Black Sea in the South to Belarus in the North, Russia to the east, and Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west. The Dnieper River is the regions key waterway, running into the Black Sea, while the Danube Delta also forms its border with modern-day Romania to the southwest. A steppe exists in the middle of the country while the Carpathian Mountains feature in the West. This geographical formation has influenced some of the countrys key historical developments, as well as the location of its major settlements. Kiev (known today as Kyiv) is, of course, the longstanding capital of the country, located on the Dnieper River in the Central Northern part of modern Ukraine. Lviv is another large city, located in the Northwest near the border with Poland. Odessa is a seaside city on the Black Sea in Ukraines Southwest, while Kharkiv, Luhansk, and Donetsk are major cities in the countrys East, close to the Russian border. Some historians believe that Kiev, Ukraines capital city, was founded by Khazars, as the word is a Turkic language composite of riverbank and settlement, and the city contained a significant population of Jewish Khazars. Others believe the city predates the Khazars and actually emerged as a trading route in the sixth century CE, mainly populated by Slavs. One legend outlines how Kiev was named after Kyi, the eldest of four siblings (Shchek, Khoryv, and Lybid were the others) who hold a legendary place in Ukrainian folklore, either as travelers, emissaries, or warriors. This is documented in the Rus Primary Chronicle, written in the 12th century CE. As with so many other parts of medieval history, the facts remain often contested. Nevertheless, what is known is that one of the first great catalysts of Ukrainian history occurred when the Khazars came into conflict with the Rus, conquering tribes from the northwest.
©2020 Charles River Editors (P)2020 Charles River Editors
Groundbreaking in its inclusiveness, enthralling in its narrative of a movement whose purpose, in the words of Leon Trotsky, was "to overthrow the world", The Russian Revolution draws conclusions that aroused great controversy in this country. Richard Pipes argues convincingly that the Russian Revolution was an intellectual, rather than a class, uprising; that it was steeped in terror from its very outset; and that it was not a revolution at all but a coup d'etat - "the capture of governmental power by a small minority."
©1990 Richard Pipes (P)2019 Tantor
Uranium is best known for the destructive power of the atom bombs, which ushered in the nuclear era at the end of World War II, but given the effectiveness of nuclear power, plants like those at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania were constructed to generate energy for Americans during the second half of the 20th century. While nuclear power plants were previously not an option and thus opened the door to new, more efficient, and more affordable forms of energy for domestic consumption, the use of nuclear energy understandably unnerved people living during the Cold War and amidst ongoing nuclear detonations. After all, the damage wrought on Hiroshima and Nagasaki made clear to everyone what nuclear energy was capable of inflicting, and the health problems encountered by people exposed to the radiation also demonstrated the horrific side effects that could come with the use of nuclear weapons or the inability to harness the technology properly. Thus, it seemed that everyone's worst fears were realized on March 28, 1979 when the nuclear plant at Three Mile Island suffered a partial meltdown. As bad as it was, Three Mile Island paled in comparison to Chernobyl, which to this day remains the most notorious nuclear accident in history. Located in the Ukraine, the Chernobyl power plant was undergoing experiments in the early morning hours of April 26, 1986 when it suffered a series of explosions in one of its nuclear reactors, killing over 30 people at the plant and spread radioactive fallout across a wide swath of the Soviet Union. Chernobyl and Three Mile Island chronicles the worst nuclear accident in history and the aftermath of the accident.
©2012 Charles River Editors (P)2015 Charles River Editors
The Black Russian is the incredible story of Frederick Bruce Thomas, born in 1872 to former slaves who became prosperous farmers in Mississippi. A rich white planters attempt to steal their land forced them to flee to Memphis, where Fredericks father was brutally murdered. After leaving the South and working as a waiter and valet in Chicago and Brooklyn, Frederick sought greater freedom in London, then crisscrossed Europe, and - in a highly unusual choice for a black American at the time - went to Russia in 1899. Because he found no color line there, Frederick made Moscow his home. He renamed himself Fyodor Fyodorovich Tomas, married twice, acquired a mistress, and took Russian citizenship. Through his hard work, charm, and guile he became one of the citys richest and most famous owners of variety theaters and restaurants. But the Bolshevik Revolution ruined him, and he barely escaped with his life and family to Constantinople in 1919. Starting from scratch, he made a second fortune by opening celebrated nightclubs that introduced jazz to Turkey. However, the long arm of American racism, the xenophobia of the new Turkish Republic, and Fredericks own extravagance landed him in debtors prison. He died in Constantinople in 1928.
©2013 Vladimir Alexandrov (P)2013 Blackstone Audio
An extraordinary lost chapter in the history of World War I: the story of Americas year-long invasion of Russia, in which a contingency of brave soldiers fought the Red Army and brutal conditions during the fall and winter of 1918-1919. In August 1918, the 339th regiment of the US Army - roughly 5,000 soldiers, most hailing from Michigan - sailed for Europe to fight in World War I. But instead of the Western Front, these troops were headed to Archangel, Russia, a vital port city 1,000 miles northeast of Moscow. There, in the frozen subarctic, amid the chaos of the Russian Civil War, one of the most extraordinary episodes of American history unfolded. The American North Russia Expeditionary Force - self-dubbed The Polar Bear Expedition - was sent to fight the Red Army and aid anti-Bolshevik forces in hopes of reopening the Eastern Front against Germany. On the 100th anniversary of the campaign, award-winning historian James Carl Nelson recreates this harrowing, dramatic military operation in which Americans and Bolsheviks fought a series of pitched battles throughout a punishing fall and winter. As the Great War officially ended in November 1918, American troops continued to battle the Red Army and an equally formidable enemy, General Winter. Subzero temperatures made machine guns and light artillery inoperable. In the blinding ice and snow, sentries suffered from frostbite while guarding against nearly invisible Bolos camouflaged by their white uniforms. Before the Polar Bears withdrawal in July 1919, more than 200 perished from battle, accidents, and the Spanish flu. But the Polar Bears story does not end there. Ten years later, a contingent of veterans returned to Russia to recover the remains of more than 100 of their fallen comrades and lay them to rest in Michigan, where a monument honoring their service still stands: a massive marble polar bear guarding a cross that marks the grave of a fallen soldier. PLEASE NOTE: When you purchase this title, the accompanying PDF will be available in your Audible Library along with the audio.
©2019 James Carl Nelson (P)2019 HarperCollins Publishers
Red November is filled with hair-raising, behind-the-scenes stories that take you deep beneath the surface and into the action of the Cold War. Few know how close the world has come to annihilation better than the warriors who served America during the tense, 45-year struggle known as the Cold War. Yet for decades, their work has remained shrouded in secrecy. Now, in this riveting new history, W. Craig Reed, a former navy diver and fast-attack submariner, provides an eye-opening, pulse-pounding narrative of the underwater struggles and espionage operations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. that brought us to the brink of nuclear war more than once. Red November is filled with hair-raising, behind-the-scenes stories that take you deep beneath the surface and into the action during the entire Cold War period from 1946 through 1992. Reed served aboard submarines involved in espionage operations, and his father was a top military intelligence specialist intimately involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis. Reed is one of the first authors to obtain so many in-depth interviews with dozens of navy divers, espionage operatives, submariners, and government officials on both sides (including several Soviet submarine captains) about the most daring and decorated missions of the conflict, including top-secret Ivy Bells, Boresight, Bulls Eye, and Holystone operations. Transcending traditional submarine, espionage, and Cold War accounts, Red November is an up-close examination of one of the most dangerous times in world history and an intimate look at the men and women who participated in our countrys longest and most expensive underwater war.
©2010 W. Craig Reed (P)2010 Blackstone Audio, Inc.
Of all the despots of our time, Joseph Stalin lasted the longest and wielded the greatest power, and his secrets have been the most jealously guarded - even after his death. In this book, the first to draw from recently released archives, Robert Conquest gives us Stalin as a child and student; as a revolutionary and communist theoretician; as a political animal skilled in amassing power and absolutely ruthless in maintaining it. He presents the landmarks of Stalin's rule: the clash with Lenin; collectivization; the Great Terror; the Nazi-Soviet pact and the Nazi-Soviet war; the anti-Semitic campaign that preceded his death; and the legacy he left behind. Distilling a lifetime's study, weaving detail, analysis, and research, Conquest has given us an extraordinarily powerful narrative of this incredible figure.
©1991 Robert Conquest (P)1992 Blackstone Audio, Inc.
"Death is the solution to all problems. No man no problem." (Joseph Stalin) Worshipped by the Russians as a great leader, Stalin was one of modern history's greatest tyrants, rivalling Hitler, Mao Zedong and Pol Pot. But he probably had more blood on his hands than any of them. Born Josef Dzhugashvili in Gori, Georgia in 1879, Stalin studied to be a priest while secretly reading the works of Karl Marx. Politics soon became his religion and, under his ruthless rule, up to 60 million people perished. Peasants who resisted Stalin's policy of collectivisation were denounced as Kulaks, arrested and shot, exiled or worked to death in his ever-expanding network of concentration camps, the Gulag. Nobody was safe, not even his friends, his family or his political allies. This is the story of a man who never let up for a second in his pursuit of absolute power.
©2012 Arcturus Publishing Limited (P)2017 Arcturus Digital Limited
History describes the 872-day Siege of Leningrad as the most devastating siege in history. The German army had made its way to Leningrad before the city had the opportunity to prepare for an assault, and the consequences were lethal. Accompanied by one of the worst famines in history, as well as a brutally cold winter in 1941-1942, the civilians were doomed. Of the three million people living in Leningrad at the start of the siege, more than a million would be evacuated and approximately another million would die before the assault ended in 1944. Inside you will hear about.... "St. Petersburg: The City of Three Revolutions" "The Fate of Leningrad Under Stalin" "Encircling Leningrad" "Inside Leningrad" "The Road of Life" "The Leningrad Affair" And much more! During those 872 days, Leningrad was rendered numb as people fell dead in the streets and were not placed in coffins because no one had the strength to bury them. People ate their pets and boiled leather for food; they committed murder to obtain ration cards for the meager provisions that the city could provide; some resorted to cannibalism. Kept alive by their fervent patriotism and an astonishing will to survive, the citizens of Leningrad greeted the end of the siege with jubilation. Although they outlasted the Nazis, they could not defeat Josef Stalin as the paranoid leader punished Leningrad and its prominent Party members and stilled the voices of the heroes who lived. But Leningrad did not remain silenced, and the truth finally emerged. Its a harrowing saga of bravery and brutality, but one that must be told.
©2017 Hourly History (P)2017 Hourly History
If you want to discover the captivating history of the Romanovs and Nicholas II, then pay attention.... Two captivating manuscripts in one audiobook: The Romanovs: A Captivating Guide to the Last Imperial Dynasty to Rule Russia and the Impact the Romanov Family Had on Russian History Nicholas II: A Captivating Guide to the Last Emperor of Russia and How the Romanov Dynasty Collapsed as a Result of the Russian Revolution Every one of them was a person, complex, intricate, flawed, and fascinating. Their stories range from the beautiful to the tragic to the bizarre. And in this audiobook, they all are laid out for you to enjoy. Here are just some of the topics covered in part one of this audiobook: Russia before the Romanovs The first Romanovs A twisted Tutor The sons of Alexei Peter the Great The first empress Young emperors and empresses Catherine the Great The mad tsar Censorship and emancipation A bloody end to a ruling dynasty And much, much more! Here are just some of the topics covered in part two of this audiobook: The early life of the tsar The last tsars rise to power The Russo-Japanese War and the massacre of Bloody Sunday Nicholass reforms and the introduction of Rasputin Nicholas II and the onset of the Great War The fall of Grigori Rasputin: Russias scapegoat and the Romanovs trusted advisor The final years for Nicholas II as tsar of Russia From tsar to citizen: the abdication of Nicholas II A country in transition and the Romanovs arrest The execution of Nicholas II and the Romanov family And much, much more! So if you want to learn more about the Romanovs and Nicholas II, get this audiobook now!
©2020 Captivating History (P)2020 Captivating History
Discover the remarkable history of the Crimean War... The Crimean War was one of the bloodiest conflicts of the 19th century, but it is also one of the least remembered. More men died in the Crimean War than in the American Civil War which followed soon after, but while the Civil War has been the subject of countless books, articles, and movies, the Crimean War has been virtually ignored. Part of the reason for this is that the causes of the Crimean War are not well understood. Just what made four empires go to war in the Black Sea in 1854? The outcome of the war was also partly responsible; it can be argued that the Crimean War changed nothing and that it is not at all clear why and for what half a million men died. Even the name by which this war is now known was not used at the time; until the 20th century, this war was known in Britain as the Russian War. Yet the Crimean War is important for a number of reasons. Although it did not change the map of Europe and did not directly cause the fall of any of the combatants, it did indirectly shape the second half of the 19th century and the early years of the twentieth century in Europe. This war also introduced newspaper reporters and photographers who provided regular dispatches direct from the battlefield, something that became a feature of virtually every war which followed. The presence of these reporters gave the public some idea, almost for the first time, of what war was really like for the men who fought it. Although the Crimean War did not fundamentally change the world, nothing would be quite the same after its conclusion. This is the story of the Crimean War. Discover a plethora of topics such as: The March to War The Charge of the Light Brigade Death, Disease, and the Lady with the Lamp Inkerman and the Death of the Tsar The Naval War The Fall of Sevastopol And much more! So if you want a concise and informative audiobook on the Crimean War, simply buy this audiobook now for instant access!
©2020 Hourly History (P)2020 Hourly History
Recent events have made it clear that the Soviet Union is not a monolith; it's a collection of nationalities, many with serious objections to union. The demise of communism holds great promise and great danger not only for the Soviets, but for the world. This audiobook examines how the region's long history led to modern reality.
©1991 Knowledge Products, Inc. (P)1991 Knowledge Products, Inc.
The terrible conflict that dominated the mid-19th century, the Crimean War, killed at least 800,000 men and pitted Russia against a formidable coalition of Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire. It was a war for territory, provoked by fear that if the Ottoman Empire were to collapse then Russia could control a huge swathe of land from the Balkans to the Persian Gulf. But it was also a war of religion, driven by a fervent, populist and ever more ferocious belief by the Tsar and his ministers that it was Russia's task to rule all Orthodox Christians and control the Holy Land. Orlando Figes' major new book reimagines this extraordinary war, in which the stakes could not have been higher and which was fought with a terrible mixture of ferocity and incompetence. It was both a recognisably modern conflict - the first to be extensively photographed, the first to employ the telegraph, the first 'newspaper war' - and a traditional one, with illiterate soldiers, amateur officers and huge casualties caused by disease. Drawing on a huge range of fascinating sources, Figes also gives the lived experience of the war, from that of the ordinary British soldier in his snow-filled trench to the haunted, gloomy, narrow figure of Tsar Nicholas himself as he vows to take on the whole world in his hunt for religious salvation.
©2010 Orlando Figes (P)2018 Audible, Ltd
The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest man-made structure to orbit Earth and has been conducting research for close to a decade and a half. Yet it is only the latest in a long line of space stations and laboratories that have flown in orbit since the early 1970's. The histories of these earlier programs have been all but forgotten as the public focused on other, higher-profile adventures such as the Apollo moon landings. Outposts on the Frontier reveals how the Soviets and the Americans combined strengths to build space stations over the past 50 years. At the heart of these scientific advances are people of both greatness and modesty. Jay Chladek documents the historical tapestry of the people, the early attempts at space station programs, and how astronauts and engineers have contributed to and shaped the ISS in surprising ways. Outposts on the Frontier delves into the intriguing stories behind the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory, the Almaz and Salyut programs, Skylab, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, Spacelab, Mir station, Spacehab, and the ISS and gives past-due attention to Vladimir Chelomei, the Russian designer whose influence in space station development is as significant as Sergei Korolevs in rocketry. Outposts on the Frontier is an informative and dynamic history of humankinds first outposts on the frontier of space. The book is published by University of Nebraska Press. The audiobook is published by University Press Audiobooks.
©2017 Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska (P)2020 Redwood Audiobooks
The Crimea was one of the crucibles of the war on the Eastern Front, where first a Soviet and then a German army were surrounded, fought desperate battles, and were eventually destroyed. The fighting in the region was unusual for the Eastern Front in many ways, in that naval supply, amphibious landings, and naval evacuation played major roles, while both sides were also conducting ethnic cleansing as part of their strategy - the Germans eliminating the Jews and the Soviets purging the region of Tartars. From 1941, when the Soviets first created the Sevastopol fortified region, the Crimea was a focal point of the war in the East. German forces under the noted commander Manstein conquered the area in 1941-42, which was followed by two years of brutal colonization and occupation before the Soviet counteroffensive in 1944 destroyed the German 17th Army.
©2014 Robert Forczyk (P)2015 Tantor
A Dazzling Russian travelogue from the best-selling author of Great Plains. In Travels in Siberia, Ian Frazier trains his eye for unforgettable detail on Siberia, that vast expanse of Asiatic Russia. He explores many aspects of this storied, often grim region, which takes up one-seventh of the land on earth. He writes about the geography, the resources, the native peoples, the history, the 40-below midwinter afternoons, the bugs. The book brims with Mongols, half-crazed Orthodox archpriests, fur seekers, ambassadors of the czar bound for Peking, tea caravans, German scientists, American prospectors, intrepid English nurses, and prisoners and exiles of every kind - from Natalie Lopukhin, banished by the czarina for copying her dresses; to the noble Decembrist revolutionaries of the 1820s; to the young men and women of the Peoples Will movement whose fondest hope was to blow up the czar; to those who met still-ungraspable suffering and death in the Siberian camps during Soviet times. More than just a historical travelogue, Travels in Siberia is also an account of Russia since the end of the Soviet Union and a personal reflection on the all-around amazingness of Russia, a country that still somehow manages to be funny. Siberian travel books have been popular since the 13th century, when monks sent by the pope went east to find the Great Khan and wrote about their journeys. Travels in Siberia will take its place as the 21st centurys indispensable contribution to the genre.
©2010 Ian Frazier (P)2010 Macmillan Audio
Despite the best efforts of a number of historians, many aspects of the ferocious struggle between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War remain obscure or shrouded in myth. One of the most persistent of these is the notion - largely created by many former members of its own officer corps in the immediate postwar period - that the German Army was a paragon of military professionalism and operational proficiency whose defeat on the Eastern Front was solely attributable to the amateurish meddling of a crazed former Corporal and the overwhelming numerical superiority of the Red Army. A key pillar upon which the argument of German numerical-weakness vis-à-vis the Red Army has been constructed is the assertion that Germany was simply incapable of providing its army with the necessary quantities of men and equipment needed to replace its losses. In consequence, as their losses outstripped the availability of replacements, German field formations became progressively weaker until they were incapable of securing their objectives. This work seeks to address the notion of German numerical-weakness in terms of Germany's ability to replace its losses and regenerate its military strength, and assess just how accurate this argument was during the crucial first half of the Russo-German War.
©2016 Gregory Liedtke (P)2017 Tantor
In just four weeks in the summer of 1941 the German Wehrmacht wrought unprecedented destruction on four Soviet armies, conquering central Ukraine and killing or capturing three quarters of a million men. This was the Battle of Kiev - one of the largest and most decisive battles of World War II and, for Hitler and Stalin, a battle of crucial importance. For the first time, David Stahel charts the battle's dramatic course and aftermath, uncovering the irreplaceable losses suffered by Germany's "panzer groups" despite their battlefield gains, and the implications of these losses for the German war effort. He illuminates the inner workings of the German army, as well as the experiences of ordinary soldiers, showing that with the Russian winter looming and Soviet resistance still unbroken, victory came at huge cost and confirmed the turning point in Germany's war in the East.
©2012 David Stahel (P)2019 Tantor
The passage of more than 90 years and the publication of hundreds of books in dozens of languages has not extinguished an enduring interest in the mysteries surrounding the 1918 execution of the last Russian Tsar Nicholas II and his family. The Resurrection of the Romanovs draws on a wealth of new information from previously unpublished materials and unexplored sources to probe the most enduring Romanov mystery of all: the fate of the Tsar's youngest daughter, Anastasia, whose remains were not buried with those of her family, and her identification with Anna Anderson, the woman who claimed to be the missing Grand Duchess. Refuting long-accepted evidence in the Anderson case, The Resurrection of the Romanovs finally explodes the greatest royal mystery of the 20th century.
©2010 Greg King & Penny Wilson (P)2018 Dreamscape Media, LLC
The man that history came to know by the name of Trotsky has the well-established legacy of being one of the most mysterious of all the cast and characters involved with the Russian Revolution. If the Russian Revolution was a Shakespearean tragedy, Trotsky would undoubtedly be cast into the role of an Othello or King Lear type figure who means well but seems to hamstring himself with his never-ending ideological speculation and theorizing. In many ways, Trotsky could be said to be a brilliant thinker that was miscast in the wrong role. Almost seeming to refute Plato's idea of the philosopher king, Trotsky appeared to be just a little bit too introspective for his own good. While the likes of Joseph Stalin were taking action and seizing the reins from Lenin, Trotsky seemed to be lost in his thought. This book takes a look at the great mind that the Russian Revolution forgot, Leon Trotsky.
©2017 Hourly History (P)2017 Hourly History
If you want to discover the captivating life of Ivan the Terrible, then pay attention... Considering that he has gone down in history as Ivan the Terrible, the first tsar of Russia could hardly have been a boy scout. As his name suggests, Ivan had an utterly terrifying presence during his 37-year-long reign. Ivan's story is not only one of brutality, it is also a tale of great suffering. It's the story of a little boy whose father died when he was just a toddler and a story of a child whose mother was poisoned when he was only seven years old. This was a boy who had to struggle to survive as the warring nobility threatened, molested, and harassed him endlessly while he tried to protect his only friend - his deaf and mute little brother. This is also the tale of a young man who was desperate for power to defend himself and found it when he was made the tsar. And it's almost the story of a good and capable ruler whose wild temper was soothed by the presence of a tsaritsa who seemed capable of calming the storm that was Ivan's mind. But sadly, Ivan's beloved first wife was poisoned and died in agony, plunging him into a cauldron of darkness and depression that produced the tyrant that has gone down in history as a monster. In this book, you'll discover his story. In Ivan the Terrible: A Captivating Guide to the First Tsar of Russia and His Impact on Russian History, you will discover topics such as: Russia Before the First Tsar A Lineage of Heroes The Birth of an Emperor Assassination Becoming Terrible The Coronation of the First Tsar An Ambitious Young Ruler Death in the Family Betrayal Revenge Two Killings The Legacy of Ivan The Terrible And much, much more! So, if you want to learn more about the history of Ivan the Terrible, click on the "buy now" button.
©2019 Captivating History (P)2019 Captivating History
Though history is usually written by the victors, the lack of a particularly strong writing tradition from the Mongols ensured that history was largely written by those who they vanquished. Because of this, their portrayal in the West and the Middle East has been extraordinarily (and in many ways unfairly) negative for centuries, at least until recent revisions to the historical record. The Mongols have long been depicted as wild horse-archers galloping out of the dawn to rape, pillage, murder and enslave, but the Mongol army was a highly sophisticated, minutely organized and incredibly adaptive and innovative institution, as witnessed by the fact that it was successful in conquering enemies who employed completely different weaponry and different styles of fighting. The Mongols were pushed out of the region by the Poles and Lithuanians, who then occupied state territories in the 14th century. Poland seized areas in the west, known as Galicia, while Lithuania occupied a northern area called Volynia. The Mongol-Tatars, however, retained control of the Crimean Peninsula, using it as a base for trade, including that of slaves, with the Ottoman Empire. The Tatars would actually strengthen their grip on the Crimea after the Golden Hordes demise and continue terrifying other European powers. By allying themselves with the Ottomans, the Tatars seemingly lost the potent position they had when they were a part of the Mongol Empire, they were still close to being a superpower from Southeast Europe and the Middle East. Meanwhile, the Ottomans would continue to expand their territory and threaten other European nations for centuries to come. Meanwhile, Russia also began expanding its influence by playing a role in defeating the Mongol hordes. The Russian ruler, Grand Prince of Moscow Ivan III, married the final heir to the Byzantine throne, Sophia (born Zoe) Palaiologina, the daughter of the last emperor of Byzantium, in 1480. Sophia would go on to be the grandmother of Ivan the Terrible, the first tsar of Imperial Russia from 1547-84. As a result of this lineage, the Romanov tsars would claim they were the torchbearers of Orthodox Christianity, descending directly from Byzantium. All of this political maneuvering would bring about one of the most famous battles in the history of Eastern Europe as the various parties sought to fill the power vacuum. The battle would be fought around Orsha, which is today a city of about 118,000 inhabitants on the fork of the Dnieper and Arshytsa Rivers in northern Belarus. One of the oldest settlements in that nation, Orsha has historically been an important center of communication and trade, situated as it is on a major river that flows down into the Black Sea. In 1514, Orsha was a much smaller town, home to a population of no more than 5,000 as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, but on September 8 of that year, the normally quiet and unpretentious town was thrust into the worlds gaze when over 100,000 troops engaged in one of the 16th centurys biggest battles outside the town walls. The battle pitted the forces of the King of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and it was part of a conflict known to history as the Fourth Muscovite-Lithuanian War. That war was part of a series of conflicts that began in the 15th century, and the fighting would not end until Poland and the lands of Grand Duchy of Lithuania were completely annexed by the Russian Empire in 1795. The Muscovite-Lithuanian Wars: The History of the Russian Conflicts Against the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania examines the turbulent history of the region and the series of conflicts between the various powers.
©2020 Charles River Editors (P)2020 Charles River Editors
Among the Russians is a marvellous account of a solitary journey by car from St. Petersburg and the Baltic States south to Georgia and Armenia. A gifted writer and intrepid traveller, Thubron grapples with the complexities of Russian identity and relays his extraordinary journey in characteristically lyrical style. This is an enthralling and revealing account of the habits and idiosyncrasies of a fascinating nation, along with a sharp and insightful social commentary on Russian life.
© Colin Thubron; (P) Random House
Initially presiding over an oligarchic one-party regime that governed by plurality, Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili became the de facto dictator of the Soviet Union. Joseph Stalin raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies, kidnappings, and protection rackets. Repeatedly arrested, he underwent several internal exiles. Inside, youll hear about: From Georgia with rage Winds of change begin to blow Warfare Purges The great terror The Great Patriotic War Victory and aftermath Cold War All things must end And much more! To eradicate those regarded as "enemies of the working class", Stalin instituted the "Great Purge" in which more than a million were imprisoned and at least 700,000 were executed from 1934 to 1939. In 1939, Stalin's government signed a nonaggression pact with Nazi Germany. Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. The Soviet Red Army halted the German incursion and captured Berlin in 1945, ending World War II in Europe.
©2018 The History Hour (P)2018 The History Hour
Russia is an assortment of the worlds most beautiful cultures and religions. But how did Russia become home to such a diverse population and tradition that is redolent of so many parts of the world? How much does Russia owe to its spellbinding steppe in respect to its unparalleled history? This audiobook uncovers the mystery behind this and many other little known facts about Russia. Inside you will learn about.... The invasion of the Mongols The three False Dmitrys Napoleons invasion of Russia The Crimean War The formation of the Soviet Union The Cold War And much more! This audiobook discusses 50 thrilling events that were the formative days of the state. It relates both the triumphant and sanguinary years, discussing each epoch in crisp yet sufficient details allowing you to thoroughly discover one of the worlds richest nations. The Kievan Rus', Mongol invasion, Tsars Rule, Cold War, Soviet Union, the epic February Revolution - this audiobook chronicles each epoch, from prehistoric to modern Russia.
©2015 Stephan Weaver (P)2017 Stephan Weaver
Forty years ago, in May 1968, the submarine USS Scorpion sank in mysterious circumstances with a loss of 99 lives. The tragedy occurred during the height of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. Now, drawing on hours of exclusive interviews as well as recently declassified United States and Soviet intelligence files, Kenneth Sewell and Jerome Preisler explain what really happened to Scorpion. When a Soviet sub mysteriously sank near Hawaii, hundreds of miles from its normal station, Soviet naval leaders mistakenly believed that a U.S. submarine was to blame. Using a cryptographic unit acquired from the North Koreans to decipher classified Navy communications, they set a trap for revenge. All Hands Down explains how the plan was executed and why the truth of the attack has been officially denied for 40 years.
©2008 Kenneth Sewell and Jerome Priesler (P)2008 Blackstone Audio, Inc.
La historia del pueblo ruso y la historia del S. XX mundial no pueden comprenderse sin conocer a fondo la vida de Stalin, su férreo gobierno y su férrea personalidad corrieron paralelos y su voluntad sacudió, en ocasiones, los cimientos del mundo. Iosif Vissarionovich, Stalin, fue el hijo de un zapatero, un preso, un revolucionario, un líder militar y, entre 1928 y 1953 manejó a voluntad el destino del país más grande del mundo y la vida de sus ciudadanos. Su recuerdo aún genera una mezcla de terror y añoranza en millones de personas y la historia del S. XX no puede entenderse sin comprender a fondo su vida y el contexto en el que vivió hasta en sus más nimios detalles. Esto es precisamente lo que intenta Stalin, el tirano rojo, comprender la figura del dictador georgiano y del pueblo ruso que le tocó gobernar para aclarar un poco la controversia entre aquellos que defienden que fue un magnífico estadista que cogió una Rusia rural, de campesinos oprimidos y latifunduistas tiranos, y dejó una Rusia industrializada, una potencia mundial, y aquellos que le consideran autor del mayor genocidio de la historia universal. Álvaro Lozano aborda la vida del dictador de un modo que difumina las fronteras entre la historia expuesta y la historia narrada, mezcla el dato con el estilo narrativo, y se estructura de modo que, en ningún momento se pierda la tensión. La obra parte de los momentos previos a la invasión alemana de Rusia y, tras relatarnos el momento álgido del gobierno de Stalin, la Operación Barbarroja, retrocede a los orígenes de Stalin. Desde ese momento la biografía avanza cronológicamente hasta 1922, año en que es elegido Secretario General del Comité Central del Partido Comunista de la Unión Soviética, en principio no es un cargo fundamental en el organigrama comunista pero Stalin conseguirá, desde ese cargo, asir el poder absoluto de la URSS. Desde ese momento alternará la industrialización del país, su modernización y el reparto de riquezas basado en la Nueva Política Económica, los planes quinquenales y la colectivización de la tierra, con una época de terror caracterizada por las terribles purgas que desembocaban en ejecuciones o encierros en los terribles gulags, una época donde la política económica provocó hambrunas en Ucrania y desastres medioambientales como el del mar de Aral. Razones para comprar la obra: La obra sintetiza una visión de la vida del dictador con una perspectiva global del sistema económico, político y militar del stalinismo y un retrato general del pueblo ruso. El tema de Stalin y del stalinismo es esencial para entender la historia del S. XX y aún la de nuestro S. XXI pues algunas políticas y muchos conflictos actuales son herencia de aquella época. El autor pretende no sólo presentar los datos de la vida del dictador, sino también contarnos la vida del dictador, es por eso muy narrativo. El autor elige entre los cientos de miles de libros sobre el dictador y entre los cientos de miles de fotografías aquellas que son realmente claves, como las fotos de su ficha policial. Una obra ecuánime que reconoce a Stalin su capacidad como regenerador del país y no oculta los terribles asesinatos del dictador. No obstante, también muestra el autor basándose en las pruebas más recientes que las purgas llegaron a ser incontrolables para Stalin y superaron todas sus expectativas. NOTA: Cuando compre este título, el PDF que lo acompaña estará disponible en su Biblioteca Audible junto con el audio. Please note: This audiobook is in Spanish.
©2012 Ediciones Nowtilus, S.L. (P)2020 Audible, Inc.
A prize-winning historian reveals how Stalin - not Hitler - was the animating force of World War II in this major new history. World War II endures in the popular imagination as a heroic struggle between good and evil, with villainous Hitler driving its events. But Hitler was not in power when the conflict erupted in Asia - and he was certainly dead before it ended. His armies did not fight in multiple theaters, his empire did not span the Eurasian continent, and he did not inherit any of the spoils of war. That central role belonged to Joseph Stalin. The Second World War was not Hitlers war; it was Stalins war. Drawing on ambitious new research in Soviet, European, and US archives, Stalins War revolutionizes our understanding of this global conflict by moving its epicenter to the east. Hitlers genocidal ambition may have helped unleash Armageddon, but as McMeekin shows, the war which emerged in Europe in September 1939 was the one Stalin wanted, not Hitler. So, too, did the Pacific war of 1941-1945 fulfill Stalins goal of unleashing a devastating war of attrition between Japan and the Anglo-Saxon capitalist powers he viewed as his ultimate adversary. McMeekin also reveals the extent to which Soviet Communism was rescued by the US and Britains self-defeating strategic moves, beginning with Lend-Lease aid, as American and British supply boards agreed almost blindly to every Soviet demand. Stalins war machine, McMeekin shows, was substantially reliant on American material, from warplanes, tanks, trucks, jeeps, motorcycles, fuel, ammunition, and explosives, to industrial inputs and technology transfer, to the foodstuffs which fed the Red Army. This unreciprocated American generosity gave Stalins armies the mobile striking power to conquer most of Eurasia, from Berlin to Beijing, for Communism. A groundbreaking reassessment of the Second World War, Stalins War is an essential book for anyone looking to understand the current world order.
©2021 Sean McMeekin (P)2021 Basic Books
If you want to discover the captivating history of Russia, then pay attention... Four captivating manuscripts in one audiobook: Russian History: A Captivating Guide to the History of Russia, Including Events Such as the Mongol Invasion, the Napoleonic Invasion, Reforms of Peter the Great, the Fall of the Soviet Union, and more Ivan the Terrible: A Captivating Guide to the First Tsar of Russia and His Impact on Russian History The Russian Revolution: A Captivating Guide to the February and October Revolutions and the Rise of the Soviet Union Led by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks The Cambridge Five: A Captivating Guide to the Russian Spies in Britain Who Passed Information to the Soviet Union During World War II Some of the topics covered in part one of this audiobook include: The Foundation of Rusia The Christianization of Rusia The Fragmentation and Subjugation of Rusia The Rise of Muscovy Overthrowing the Tatar Yoke Gathering the Russian Lands The Birth of a Dynasty The Road to Reform Imperial Majesty And much, much more! Some of the topics covered in part two of this audiobook include: Russia Before the First Tsar A Lineage of Heroes The Birth of an Emperor Assassination Becoming Terrible The Legacy of Ivan The Terrible And much, much more! Some of the topics covered in part three of this audiobook include: Twilight of the Tsars Peace, Land, and Bread Defending the Revolution Some of the topics covered in part four of this audiobook include: The Undeniable Attraction of Marxism World War II: Espionage Between Allies And much, much more! So if you want to learn more about the history of Russia, get this audiobook now!
©2019 Captivating History (P)2019 Captivating History
Battle of Kursk - World War II Long-time adversaries Germany and the Soviet Union put their hostilities to the test in World War II. Despite a temporary truce in the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Non-aggression Pact in 1939, the Germans and the Soviets knew that the time was coming when they would face one another on the battlefield. Adolf Hitler, eager to accomplish his confident prediction that Russia would be easily defeated and its people subjected into slavery to serve as free labor for Germany, invaded the vast country in June 1941. But Operation Barbarossa was the beginning of the downfall of the Third Reich, as the dogged Russian refusal to succumb and the menace of the Russian winter demonstrated that the Soviet Union would not surrender as other European nations had done. You will learn about: Hitlers View of the Untermensch The Communazi Pact and Operation Barbarossa The German Panzers The Soviet T-34 Preparing for Battle Showdown at Kursk And much more! By the end of the Battle of Kursk in August 1943, the largest tank battle in history, Germany had learned that the Soviet war machine was not easily dismissed. The Russians had learned that the Nazis were not invincible. In a fierce military encounter that included more than three million soldiers, 10.000 tanks, and 5.000 aircraft, the Battle of Kursk demonstrated the folly of underestimating the might of the Red Army.
©2019 Hourly History (P)2019 Hourly History
A transcendent history/memoir of one familys always passionate, sometimes tragic connection to Russia. On a midsummer day in 1937, a black car pulled up to a house in Chernigov, in the heart of the Ukraine. Boris Bibikov - Owen Matthews grandfather - kissed his wife and two young daughters good-bye and disappeared inside the car. His family never saw him again. His wife would soon vanish as well, leaving Lyudmila and Lenina alone to drift across the vast Russian landscape during World War II. Separated as the Germans advanced in 1941, they were miraculously reunited against all odds at the wars end. Some 25 years later, in the early 1960s, Mervyn Matthews - Owens father - followed a lifelong passion for Russia and moved to Moscow to work for the British embassy. He fell in and out with the KGB, and despite having fallen in love with Lyudmila, he was summarily deported. For the next six years, Mervyn worked day and night to get Lyudmila out of Russia, and when he finally succeeded, they married. Decades on from these events, Owen Matthews - then a young journalist himself in Russia - came upon his grandfathers KGB file recording his progress from life to death at the hands of Stalins secret police". Stimulated by its revelations, he has pieced together the tangled and dramatic threads of his familys past and present, making sense of the magnetic pull that has drawn him back to his mothers homeland. Stalins Children is an indelible portrait of Russia over seven decades and an unforgettable memoir about how we struggle to define ourselves in opposition to our ancestry only to find ourselves aligning with it. I came to Russia to get away from my parents, writes Matthews. Instead I found them there, though for a long time I didnt know it or refused to see it. This is a story about Russia and my family, about a place which made us and freed us and inspired us and very nearly broke us. And its ultimately a story about escape, about how we all escaped from Russia, even though all of us - even my father, a Welshman, who has no Russian blood, even me, who grew up in England - still carry something of Russia inside ourselves, infecting our blood like a fever.
©2008 Owen Matthews (P)2013 Audible, Inc.
On June 22, 1941, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa, one of the turning points of World War II. Within six months, the invasion bogged down on the outskirts of Moscow, and the Eastern Front proved to be the decisive theater in the defeat of the Third Reich. Ever since, most historians have agreed that this was Hitler's gravest mistake. In Hitler's Great Gamble, James Ellman argues that while Barbarossa was a gamble and perverted by genocidal Nazi ideology, it was not doomed from the start. Rather it represented Hitler's best chance to achieve his war aims for Germany, which were remarkably similar to those of the kaiser's government in 1914. Other options, such as an invasion of England or an offensive to seize the oil fields of the Middle East, were considered and discarded as unlikely to lead to Axis victory. In Ellman's recounting, Barbarossa did not fail because of flaws in the Axis invasion strategy, the size of the USSR, or the brutal cold of the Russian winter. Instead, German defeat was due to errors of Nazi diplomacy. Hitler chose not to coordinate his plans with his most militarily powerful allies, Finland and Japan, and ensure the seizure of the ports of Murmansk and Vladivostok. Had he done so, Germany might well have succeeded in defeating the Soviet Union and, perhaps, winning World War II.
©2019 James Ellman (P)2020 Tantor
Tens of millions died during World War II as the warring powers raced to create the best fighter planes, tanks, and guns, and eventually that race extended to bombs which carried enough power to destroy civilization itself. While the war raged in Europe and the Pacific, a dream team of Nobel Laureates was working on the Manhattan Project, a program kept so secret that Vice President Harry Truman didnt know about it until he took the presidency after FDRs death in April 1945.
The Manhattan Project would ultimately yield the "Little Boy" and "Fat Man" bombs that released more than 100 Terajoules of energy at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but weeks earlier, on July 16, 1945, the first detonation of a nuclear device took place in Alamogordo, New Mexico. The first bomb was nicknamed the "gadget", to avoid espionage attempts to discover that it was, indeed, a bomb. In some sense, the device detonated in July was not really a "bomb" anyway; it was not a deployable device, though it was a detonatable one.
With this success, word reached President Truman, who was then attending the Potsdam Conference, and while there, he presented the news to Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. Stalin feigned surprise; in an ironic twist of fate, espionage missions had revealed American nuclear research to the Soviets before it had even reached Vice President Truman.
The attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, along with the Cold War-era tests and their accompanying mushroom clouds, would demonstrate the true power and terror of nuclear weapons, but in the late 1930s these bombs were only vaguely being thought through, particularly after the successful first experiment to split the atom by a German scientist. Despite the fact the Nazis quest for a nuclear weapon began in earnest in 1939, no one really had a handle on how important nuclear weapons would prove to war and geopolitics, so the Germans were hesitant to expend resources on it. Moreover, they were hampered by the fact their policies had compelled Jewish scientists like Liz Meitner and Albert Einstein to flee before the war.
For their part, Stalins regime had been working on a nuclear weapons program since 1942, relying greatly upon successful Soviet espionage to help lead the way. With intelligence sources connected to the Manhattan Project, Stalin was able to keep abreast of the Allies progress toward creating an atomic bomb, so that by 1945, the Soviets already had a working blueprint of Americas first atomic bombs.
On August 29, 1949, the Soviets successfully tested an atomic bomb, and with that, the Soviet Union became the second nation after the US to develop and possess nuclear weapons. The nuclear age itself was still in its infancy, but within a few short years the advent of nuclear war loomed over the world and the prospect of a malign dictatorship possessing nuclear superiority kept Western leaders awake at night.
The Soviet Nuclear Weapons Program: The History and Legacy of the USSRs Efforts to Build the Atomic Bomb examines the Soviets race to reach the ultimate goal during and after World War II, and how they went about their objectives. You will learn about Nazi Germanys nuclear weapons program like never before.
©2019 Charles River Editors (P)2019 Charles River Editors
When Ronald Reagan took office in January 1981, the US and NATO were losing the Cold War. The USSR had superiority in conventional weapons and manpower in Europe and had embarked on a massive program to gain naval preeminence. But Reagan already had a plan to end the Cold War without armed conflict. Reagan led a bipartisan Congress to restore American command of the seas by building the Navy back to 600 major ships and 15 aircraft carriers. He adopted a bold new strategy to deploy the growing fleet to northern waters around the periphery of the Soviet Union and demonstrate that the NATO fleet could sink Soviet submarines, defeat Soviet bomber and missile forces, and strike aggressively deep into the Soviet homeland if the USSR attacked NATO in Central Europe. New technology in radars, sensors, and electronic warfare made ghosts of American submarines and surface fleets. The US proved it could effectively operate carriers and aircraft in the ice and storms of Arctic waters, which no other navy had attempted. The Soviets, suffocated by this naval strategy, were forced to bankrupt their economy trying to keep pace. Shortly thereafter the Berlin Wall fell, and the USSR disbanded.
©2018 John Lehman (P)2018 Tantor
The Caucasus mountains rise at the intersection of Europe, Russia, and the Middle East. A land of astonishing natural beauty and a dizzying array of ancient cultures, the Caucasus for most of the 20th century lay inside the Soviet Union, before movements of national liberation created newly independent countries and sparked the devastating war in Chechnya. Charles King reveals how tsars, highlanders, revolutionaries, and adventurers have contributed to the fascinating history of this borderland, providing an indispensable guide to the complicated histories, politics, and cultures of this intriguing frontier. Based on new research in multiple languages, the book shows how the struggle for freedom in the mountains, hills, and plains of the Caucasus has been a perennial theme over the last 200 years - a struggle which has led to liberation as well as to new forms of captivity. The book sheds valuable light on the origins of modern disputes, including the ongoing war in Chechnya, conflicts in Georgia and Azerbaijan, and debates over oil from the Caspian Sea and its impact on world markets.
©2008 Oxford University Press, Inc. (P)2017 Tantor
On the 100th anniversary of the murder of the Russian imperial family, acclaimed historian Helen Rappaport embarks on a quest to uncover the many international plots to save them, why they failed, and who was responsible. The murder of the Romanov family in July 1918 horrified the world, and its aftershocks still reverberate today. In Putin's autocratic Russia, the Revolution itself is considered a crime, and its anniversary was largely ignored. In stark contrast, the centenary of the massacre of the imperial family will be commemorated in 2018 by a huge ceremony to be attended by the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. While the murder itself has received major attention, what has never been investigated in detail are the various plots behind the scenes to save the family - on the part of their royal relatives, other governments, and Russian monarchists loyal to the tsar. Rappaport refutes the claim that the fault lies entirely with King George V, as has been the traditional claim for the last century. The responsibility for failing the Romanovs must be equally shared. The question of asylum for the tsar and his family was an extremely complicated issue that presented enormous political, logistical, and geographical challenges at a time when Europe was still at war. Like a modern-day detective, Helen Rappaport draws on new and never-before-seen sources from archives in the United States, Russia, Spain, and the UK, creating a powerful account of near misses and close calls with a heartbreaking conclusion. With its up-to-the-minute research, The Race to Save the Romanovs is sure to replace outdated classics as the final word on the fate of the Romanovs.
©2018 Helen Rappaport (P)2018 Macmillan Audio
This is the extraordinary story of Vasily B. Emelianenko, the veteran pilot of one of the Soviet Union's most contradictory planes of the Second World War - the I1-2. This heavily armored aircraft was practically unrivaled in terms of fire power, but it was slow to maneuver and an easy target for fighters. I1-2 had to attack enemy flak columns at extremely low altitudes, which led to enormous tolls both in equipment and personnel. It is no wonder then that, having flown 80 combat sorties against the Germans, Emelianenko was awarded the highest decoration - the Hero of the Soviet Union. He went on to complete a total of 92 sorties. His plane was shot down three times, and on each occasion, he managed to pilot the damaged aircraft home, demonstrating remarkable resilience and bravery in the face of terrifying odds. Emelianenko's vivid memoirs provide a rare insight into the reality of fighting over the Eastern Front and the tactics of the Red Army Air Force. With remarkable clarity, he recalls what it was like to come face to face with a skilled, deadly, and increasingly desperate enemy. Hair-raising encounters with fighters, forced landings on enemy territory, and the death of friends are all brought dramatically and movingly to life in this rare firsthand account.
©2005 Vasily B. Emelianenko; Introduction 2005 by Vladimir Vershinin (P)2018 Tantor
La historia del pueblo ruso y la historia del S. XX mundial no pueden comprenderse sin conocer a fondo la vida de Stalin, su férreo gobierno y su férrea personalidad corrieron paralelos y su voluntad sacudió, en ocasiones, los cimientos del mundo. Iosif Vissarionovich, Stalin, fue el hijo de un zapatero, un preso, un revolucionario, un líder militar y, entre 1928 y 1953 manejó a voluntad el destino del país más grande del mundo y la vida de sus ciudadanos. Su recuerdo aún genera una mezcla de terror y añoranza en millones de personas y la historia del S. XX no puede entenderse sin comprender a fondo su vida y el contexto en el que vivió hasta en sus más nimios detalles. Esto es precisamente lo que intenta Stalin, el tirano rojo, comprender la figura del dictador georgiano y del pueblo ruso que le tocó gobernar para aclarar un poco la controversia entre aquellos que defienden que fue un magnífico estadista que cogió una Rusia rural, de campesinos oprimidos y latifunduistas tiranos, y dejó una Rusia industrializada, una potencia mundial, y aquellos que le consideran autor del mayor genocidio de la historia universal. Álvaro Lozano aborda la vida del dictador de un modo que difumina las fronteras entre la historia expuesta y la historia narrada, mezcla el dato con el estilo narrativo, y se estructura de modo que, en ningún momento se pierda la tensión. La obra parte de los momentos previos a la invasión alemana de Rusia y, tras relatarnos el momento álgido del gobierno de Stalin, la Operación Barbarroja, retrocede a los orígenes de Stalin. Desde ese momento la biografía avanza cronológicamente hasta 1922, año en que es elegido Secretario General del Comité Central del Partido Comunista de la Unión Soviética, en principio no es un cargo fundamental en el organigrama comunista pero Stalin conseguirá, desde ese cargo, a ser el poder absoluto de la URSS. Desde ese momento alternará la industrialización del país, su modernización y el reparto de riquezas basado en la Nueva Política Económica, los planes quinquenales y la colectivización de la tierra, con una época de terror caracterizada por las terribles purgas que desembocaban en ejecuciones o encierros en los terribles gulags, una época donde la política económica provocó hambrunas en Ucrania y desastres medioambientales como el del mar de Aral. Razones para comprar la obra: - La obra sintetiza una visión de la vida del dictador con una perspectiva global del sistema económico, político y militar del stalinismo y un retrato general del pueblo ruso. - El tema de Stalin y del stalinismo es esencial para entender la historia del S. XX y aún la de nuestro S. XXI pues algunas políticas y muchos conflictos actuales son herencia de aquella época. Una obra ecuánime que reconoce a Stalin su capacidad como regenerador del país y no oculta los terribles asesinatos del dictador. Please note: This audiobook is in Spanish. PLEASE NOTE: When you purchase this title, the accompanying reference material will be available in your Library section along with the audio.
©2012 Ediciones Nowtilus, S.L. (P)2017 Audible, Inc.
Among the leaders of the 20th century, arguably none shaped the course of history as much as Vladimir Lenin (1870-1942), the Communist revolutionary and political theorist who led the Bolshevik Revolution that established the Soviet Union. In addition to shaping the Marxist-Leninist political thought that steered Soviet ideology, he was the first Soviet premier until his death and set the Soviet Union on its way to becoming one of the world's two superpowers for most of the century, in addition to being the West's Cold War adversary. As it turned out, the creation of the Soviet Union came near the end of Lenin's life, as he worked so hard that he had burned himself out by his 50s, dying in 1924 after a series of strokes had completely debilitated him. Near the end of his life, he expressly stated that the regime's power should not be put in the hands of the current General Secretary of the Communist Party, Joseph Stalin. Of course, Stalin managed to do just that, modernizing the Soviet Union at a breakneck pace on the backs of millions of poor laborers and prisoners. If Adolf Hitler had not inflicted the devastation of World War II upon Europe, it's quite likely that the West would consider Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) the 20th century's greatest tyrant. Before World War II, Stalin consolidated his position by frequently purging party leaders (most famously Leon Trotsky) and Red Army leaders, executing hundreds of thousands of people at the least. Along with Vladimir Lenin, Trotsky led the October Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 and held crucial posts in the early Soviet governments, but after Lenins death Trotsky was exiled, persecuted and finally murdered at the behest of his arch-rival, Joseph Stalin.
©2012 Charles River Editors (P)2015 Charles River Editors
Just what was so terrible about Ivan the Terrible? Most of us are familiar with this infamous nickname, but most fall short of being able to describe how he received such an ominous moniker. Maybe youve heard the stories of how Ivan killed his own son, poisoned his wives, and waged war on his neighbors, but these anecdotes are just minor details in the scheme of this mans complicated life. Inside you will read about... Ivan, the Neglected Orphan Ivans Liberation of Slaves War in the Baltic Intrigue and Diplomacy Ivans Final Redemption Ivans Last Days And much more! Ivan IV, otherwise known as Ivan the Terrible, was born with a heavy burden on his shoulders. He was thrust into the seat of what the Russians considered the Third Rome, granting him all the rights and privileges of the official steward of Orthodox Christian civilization in the east. In order to hold on to that right, he did indeed do some pretty terrible things.
©2017 Hourly History (P)2017 Hourly History
This audiobook exposes the misconceptions, half-truths, and outright lies that have shaped the still dominant but largely mythical version of what happened in the White House during those harrowing two weeks of secret Cuban missile crisis deliberations. A half-century after the event it is surely time to demonstrate, once and for all, that RFK's Thirteen Days and the personal memoirs of other ExComm members cannot be taken seriously as historically accurate accounts of the ExComm meetings.
©2012 Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University (P)2013 Redwood Audiobooks
The spy novel emerged from the intrigues of the mid-20th century for good reason. The war with the Third Reich involved an unseen cloak-and-dagger struggle between the participants, but beyond that, an even larger and longer contest took place in the shadows. Communism gained its first major foothold in statehood with the success of the Russian Revolution at the end of World War I, a success bizarrely assisted by the massive funding provided to the revolutionaries by some Western businessmen. Armand Hammers father, Julius, for instance, gave the new Soviet Union $50,000 in gold to back their new currency. In exchange, he received asbestos mining and oil concessions, plus a pencil manufacturing monopoly in the USSR lasting until the Stalin era. Soviet Russia followed a philosophy demanding international, global revolution - which, in practice, often resembled conquest by any means available, direct or indirect. While the Soviets never hesitated to use naked force when it seemed advisable, or when compelled to it by outside attack, they made intensive use of covert operations - spying, assassination, bribery, infiltration of governments and educational systems, the deployment of agents provocateur, and "agitprop" - in an effort to weaken other nations from within or possibly cause takeover by a friendly revolutionary regime. Soviet agents operated in all European countries and others, but their main efforts naturally focused on the strongest potential rivals - Germany, the United States, and Great Britain. Intelligent, persistent, and ruthless, the Soviets succeeded in recruiting a considerable number of agents, including men from the British ruling class. Their activities enabled the Soviets to capture and execute hundreds, if not thousands, of the opponents of their regime along with numbers of British agents. The men responsible for this unprecedented leaking of life-or-death information would enter history as the Cambridge Five - though in fact, they may have been only the core of a much larger group. The Cambridge Five: The History and Legacy of the Notorious Soviet Spy Ring in Britain During World War II and the Cold War chronicles the wars most infamous spy ring and its activities. You will learn about the Cambridge Five like never before.
©2018 Charles River Editors (P)2018 Charles River Editors
Reigning from 1894 to 1917, Nicholas II was the last emperor of Russia. His rule served as the bookends between what were essentially two Russian empires; the one that his forefathers carved out through imperial ambition and the one dictated by the zealous communists of the Soviet Union bent on socialist expansion. Nicholas was by most accounts a conflicted ruler; a man viewed as kind and generous in his mannerisms, yet alleged to be greatly disconnected and apathetic toward the subjects he was supposed to rule over. From this audiobook you will learn about: Nicholas and the Funeral Bride The Coronation Tragedy Bloody Sunday Nicholas Reluctant Reforms Three Hundred Years of Romanov Rule The Tsar and World War I The Last Russian Tsar And much more Find out how this last Russian tsar rose to power and oversaw the end of a 300-year family dynasty as it teetered, tottered, and finally fell over the edge of oblivion. This is the story of Tsar Nicholas II.
©2017 Hourly History (P)2018 Hourly History
The Austro-Hungarian army that marched east and south to confront the Russians and Serbs in the opening campaigns of World War I had a glorious past but a pitiful present. Speaking a mystifying array of languages and lugging outdated weapons, the Austrian troops were hopelessly unprepared for the industrialized warfare that would shortly consume Europe. As prizewinning historian Geoffrey Wawro explains in A Mad Catastrophe, the doomed Austrian conscripts were an unfortunate microcosm of the Austro-Hungarian Empire itself - both equally ripe for destruction. After the assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914, Germany goaded the Empire into a war with Russia and Serbia. With the Germans massing their forces in the west to engage the French and the British, everything - the course of the war and the fate of empires and alliances from Constantinople to London - hinged on the Habsburgs ability to crush Serbia and keep the Russians at bay. However, Austria-Hungary had been rotting from within for years, hollowed out by repression, cynicism, and corruption at the highest levels. Commanded by a dying emperor, Franz Joseph I, and a querulous celebrity general, Conrad von Hötzendorf, the Austro-Hungarians managed to bungle everything: their ultimatum to the Serbs, their declarations of war, their mobilization, and the pivotal battles in Galicia and Serbia. By the end of 1914, the Habsburg army lay in ruins and the outcome of the war seemed all but decided. Drawing on deep archival research, Wawro charts the decline of the Empire before the war and reconstructs the great battles in the east and the Balkans in thrilling and tragic detail. A Mad Catastrophe is a riveting account of a neglected face of World War I, revealing how a once-mighty empire collapsed in the trenches of Serbia and the Eastern Front, changing the course of European history.
©2014 Geoffrey Wawro (P)2014 Audible Inc.
One of the most idiosyncratic horrors of Soviet Russia was the Gulag system, an extensive network of forced labor and concentration camps. Part of the rationale behind this system was that it could serve as slave labor in the drive for industrialization while also serving as a form of punishment. The name Gulag is in fact an acronym, approximating to Main Administration of Camps (in Russian: Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei) and operated by the Soviet Unions Ministry of the Interior. The Gulag consisted of internment camps, forced labor camps, psychiatric hospital facilities, and special laboratories, and its prisoners were known as zeks. Such was the closed and secretive nature of the Soviet state that to this day, knowledge of the Gulag system comes mainly from Western studies, firsthand accounts by prisoners such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, and some local studies after the fall of communism. The most recognizable version of the Gulag, a term that was never pluralized in Russia itself, existed from the 1930s to 1950s, a period in which a huge network of camps and prisons was established across the vast Soviet federation. Prisoners were often used as forced labor, made to do physically arduous and soul-destroying tasks. Some workers helped to build large infrastructure projects, and indeed, the system was partly rationalized in terms of economics. By the early 1960s, Gulags were synonymous with various forms of punishments, including house arrest, imprisonment in isolated places, or confinement to a mental hospital where a prisoner would be declared insane or diagnosed with a political form of psychosis. In its later years, the Gulags held a particular place in the publics imagination, both within the USSR and in the outside world. They could mean exile, brutal punishment, or simply being banished to Siberia. Though its often forgotten today, in many respects, the Gulags represented a continuation (albeit a more far-reaching version) of the kind of punishment meted out during the Russian Empire under the Romanov dynasty, which was overthrown in 1917. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the system in the context of the broader history of Russia and its empire, even as the system of repression, imprisonment, and punishment persisted for decades in the Soviet Union and has been primarily aligned with the rule of one leader: Josef Stalin. The USSR collapsed in December 1991, and it can be argued that the labor camps were not only integral to the very existence of the Soviet Union, but also a damning indictment of the Soviets failed experiment in communist totalitarianism. The Gulags: The History and Legacy of the Notorious Soviet Labor Camps examines the rise of the labor camps, how they were institutionalized by Soviet leaders, and what life was like for the prisoners.
©2018 Charles River Editors (P)2019 Charles River Editors
Rockets and Revolution offers a multifaceted study of the race toward space in the first half of the twentieth century, examining how the Russian, European, and American pioneers competed against one another in the early years to acquire the fundamentals of rocket science, engineer simple rockets, and ultimately prepare the path for human spaceflight. Between 1903 and 1953, Russia matured in radical and dramatic ways as the tensions and expectations of the Russian revolution drew it both westward and spaceward. European and American industrial capacities became the models to imitate and to surpass. The burden was always on Soviet Russia to catch up - enough to achieve a number of remarkable "firsts" in these years, from the first national rocket society to the first comprehensive surveys of spaceflight. Russia rose to the challenges of its western rivals time and again, transcending the arenas of science and technology and adapting rocket science to popular culture, science fiction, political ideology, and military programs. While that race seemed well on its way to achieving the goal of space travel and exploring life on other planets, during the second half of the twentieth century these scientific advances turned back on humankind with the development of the intercontinental ballistic missile and the coming of the Cold War.
©2014 Michael G. Smith (P)2016 Redwood Audiobooks
For 30 years, much of the West looked on with disdain as the Bolsheviks took power in Russia and created and consolidated the Soviet Union. As bad as Vladimir Lenin seemed in the early 20th century, Joseph Stalin was so much worse that Churchill later remarked of Lenin, Their worst misfortune was his birth...their next worst his death. Before World War II, Stalin consolidated his position by frequently purging party leaders (most famously Leon Trotsky) and Red Army leaders, executing hundreds of thousands of people at the least. And in one of historys greatest textbook examples of the idea that the enemy of my enemy is my friend, Stalins Soviet Union allied with Britain and the United States to defeat Hitler in Europe during World War II. As it turned out, however, the Soviets would not cede any of the territory the Red Army took while pushing the Wehrmacht back to Berlin in the latter stages of World War II, ensuring that the Iron Curtain would envelop much of Central and Eastern Europe. In almost no time at all, most of these countries were transformed into authoritarian, communist, one-party states, and opponents were exiled or jailed. In 1955, Moscow had brought together all the satellites as part of the Warsaw Pact, a collective security organization to challenge the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which had been founded in 1949 by the United States and Western European allies. Nonetheless, the mid-1950's were tumultuous for the Soviet Bloc. Several countries saw Stalins death and the apparent change of direction, even the softening of policy under Khrushchev, as an opportunity to pursue a reformist path. In East Germany, Poland, and Hungary, demonstrations against the communist regimes induced uncertainty, and Hungarian leaders attempted to incorporate the protestors and orientate themselves towards the West, leading to a notorious Soviet invasion. Only occasionally did the peoples of the so-called Eastern Bloc attempt to break free from the status quo, or at least register their dissatisfaction. These mass demonstrations and uprisings act as markers of the Cold War, including 1953 in East Berlin, 1968 in Czechoslovakia, 1980-81 in Poland, and, of course, 1989 in East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Romania. The fall of the Berlin Wall is likely the most famous, but the uprising with the greatest impact on the bulk of the Cold War took place in Hungary in 1956, when protestors took to the streets to demand freedom from tyranny and a greater say in their own destiny. When the Hungarians rose up against the status quo in October 1956, they were met with a brutal response from Moscow. The history of Hungary is one of a country that experienced almost constant expansion and contraction, along with waves of autonomy and domination. It is this sense of history that played such a dominant role in 1956 and why the suppression of the Hungarian Revolution has such a searing place in the national consciousness. Above all, 1956 brought about a sense of helplessness that Hungary had little chance to tread a path of national self-determination, as the threat of Soviet military intervention hung over the country. Of course, that was the Soviets intention all along. By crushing the Hungarian Uprising, the Soviets dampened the hopes of the people of Central and Eastern Europe that they might be able to pursue a more independent-minded path. The one exception to this rule would be Titos Yugoslavia. The Soviet Invasion of Hungary in 1956: The History and Legacy of the Hungarian Uprising and the Military Operations That Put It Down looks at the events that brought about the most famous rebellion against Soviet authority during the Cold War; you will learn about the Soviet invasion of Hungary like never before.
Public Domain (P)2020 Charles River Editors
Dawn on Sunday, June 22, 1941 saw the opening onslaughts of Operation Barbarossa as German forces stormed forward into the Soviet Union. Few of them were to survive the five long years of bitter struggle. A posting to the Eastern Front during the Second World War was rightly regarded with dread by the German soldiers. They were faced by the unremitting hostility of the climate, the people and even, at times, their own leadership. They saw epic battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk, and yet it was a daily war of attrition which ultimately proved fatal for Hitler's ambition and the German military machine. In this classic account leading military historian James Lucas examines different aspects of the fighting, from war in the trenches to a bicycle-mounted antitank unit fighting against the oncoming Russian hordes. Told through the experiences of the German soldiers who endured these nightmarish years of warfare, War on the Eastern Front is a unique record of this cataclysmic campaign.
©1979 Cooper and Lucas Ltd (P)2020 Tantor
Within just a month of becoming president, the issue of Communist Cuba became central to John F. Kennedy and his administration. On February 3, 1961, President Kennedy called for a plan to support Cuban refugees in the US. A month later, he created the Peace Corps, a program that trained young American volunteers to help with economic and community development in poor countries. Both programs were integral pieces of the Cold War. They were attempts to align disadvantaged groups abroad with the United State and the West against the Soviet Union and its communist satellites. Meanwhile, covert operations were laying the groundwork for overthrowing Cuban leader Fidel Castro, and he knew it. Castro railed against CIA involvement among Cubans who were trying to overthrow him and his still-young revolution. Matters came to a head that April, when the Kennedy Administration moved beyond soft measures to direct action. From April 17-20, 1,400 CIA-trained Cuban exiles landed on the beaches of Western Cuba in an attempt to overthrow Castro. This plan, known as the "Bay of Pigs", had originally been drafted by the Eisenhower Administration. The exiles landed in Cuba and were expected to be greeted by anti-Castro forces within the country, after which the US would provide air reinforcement to the rebels, and the Castro regime would slowly be overthrown. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's belief that he could push the inexperienced American leader around grew in the wake of the Bay of Pigs fiasco and the inconclusive Vienna summit in June 1961, which left Kennedy complaining to his brother Bobby that Khrushchev was, "[L]ike dealing with Dad. All give and no take."
©2012 Charles River Editors (P)2015 Charles River Editors
"There is no people under the sun more vile and deceitful than this one." - Soviet inscription on a statue of 19th century Russian general Aleksey Yermolov in Grozny. Troops assembled villagers and townspeople, loaded them onto trucks - many deportees remembered that they were Studebakers, fresh from Lend-Lease deliveries over the Iranian border - and delivered them at previously designated railheads...Those who could not be moved were shot...[A] few fighters aside, the entire Chechen and Ingush nations, 496,460 people, were deported from their homeland. (Norman Naimark) Today, Chechnya is a republic with some degree of autonomy in the contemporary Russian Federation. Its population is just over a million people, and it stretches over an area of 17,000 square kilometers. The majority of Chechnyas population is comprised of Sunni Muslims, meaning religion has played a key role in the territorys development. In southwestern Russia, landlocked within 100 kilometers of the Caspian Sea, Chechnya is north of the Caucasian mountains, bordering other North Caucasus provinces such as North Ossetia, and Dagestan, and Georgia. Russia itself is a well-established Slavic, Orthodox Christian country, though its majority Muslim provinces were not obvious to outsiders until the post-Soviet conflicts of the 1990's. The history of the Chechen people in the region is, nevertheless, long-established, and Chechnya has become synonymous with conflict, civil war, and discontent. While many people are aware of that, few understand how things reached that point. The area is complex and fascinating, representing one of the worlds true fault lines in terms of religion, empire, and geography. To understand Chechen history, it is necessary to understand the regions development, including invasion, settlement, emigration, and the various confrontations and conflicts that have transpired there. Chechnya: The History of the Chechen Republic and the Ongoing Conflict with Russia examines the history of one of the most controversial regions in the world. You will learn about Chechnya like never before.
©2019 Charles River Editors (P)2019 Charles River Editors
"For in the final analysis, our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this small planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children's future. And we are all mortal." (President John F. Kennedy, June 1963) When young president Kennedy came to power in 1961, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev was eager to test his mettle from the start. Khrushchev's belief that he could push the inexperienced American leader around grew in the wake of the Bay of Pigs fiasco and the inconclusive Vienna summit in June 1961 that left Kennedy complaining to his brother, Bobby, that Khrushchev was "like dealing with Dad. All give and no take." After the events of the previous year, 1962 saw Khrushchev making his most bellicose decision. Still questioning Kennedy's resolve and attempting to placate the concerns of Cuban leader Fidel Castro following the failed Bay of Pigs invasion, Khrushchev attempted to place medium-range nuclear missiles in Cuba, just 90 miles off the coast of the United States. Though Castro warned him that it would seem like an act of aggression to the Americans, Khrushchev insisted, moving the missiles in quietly under the cover of darkness. The missiles could serve not only as a deterrent against any invasion of Cuba but also as the ultimate first-strike capability in the event of a nuclear war. However, in October 1962, American spy planes discovered that the Soviets were building nuclear missile sites in Cuba, and intelligence officials informed Kennedy. It went without saying that nuclear missile sites located just miles off the coast of the American mainland posed a grave threat to the country. Find out how Kennedy responded.
©2012- Charles River Editors (P)2015 Charles River Editors
Born an obscure German princess who suffered under the control of a domineering, narcissistic mother, the 14-year-old Princess Sophie von Anhalt-Zerbst seemed to be destined for a minor marriage and a forgettable career. Destiny had other plans for her: summoned to Russia, then considered by most Europeans to be a vast, primitive wasteland, devoid of culture or sophistication, she became the Grand Duchess Ekaterina, wife of the future emperor Peter III. What followed her short, unhappy marriage was a legendary rise to supreme power. At the age of 33, the Grand Duchess Catherine became the Empress Catherine II, ruler in her own right of the largest empire on earth. In this book, you will learn how, during Catherine's lonely years as a neglected wife in the court of the Empress Elisabeth, she bided her time and amassed the necessary political and military support to overthrow the heir to the Romanov dynasty and seize his throne. You will also learn why, over the course of her 34-year reign, which saw rebellions, foreign wars, popular uprisings, and a string of jealous lovers vying for her favor, she came to be remembered by history under the name conferred upon her by her own people: Catherine the Great.
©2016 Michael W. Simmons (P)2016 Michael W. Simmons
Fifty years after the Moon landing, a new history of the space race explores the lives of both Soviet and American engineers. At the dawn of the space age, technological breakthroughs in Earth orbit flight were both breathtaking feats of ingenuity and disturbances to a delicate global balance of power. In this short book, aerospace historian Roger D. Launius concisely and engagingly explores the driving force of this era: the race to the Moon. Beginning with the launch of Sputnik 1, in October 1957, and closing with the end of the Apollo program in 1972, Launius examines how early space exploration blurred the lines between military and civilian activities, and how key actions led to space firsts as well as crushing failures. Launius places American and Soviet programs on equal footing - following American aerospace engineers Wernher von Braun and Robert Gilruth, their Soviet counterparts Sergei Korolev and Valentin Glushko, and astronaut Buzz Aldrin and cosmonaut Alexei Leonov - to highlight key actions that led to various successes, failures, and ultimately the American Moon landing.
©2019 Roger D. Launius (P)2019 HighBridge, a division of Recorded Books
The dismantling of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the spread of Perestroika throughout the former Soviet bloc was a sea change in world history. Here, acclaimed Russian historian Robert Service examines precisely how that change came about. Drawing on a vast and largely untapped range of sources, he builds a picture of the two men who spearheaded the breakthrough: Ronald Reagan, president of the United States; and Mikhail Gorbachev, last general secretary of the Soviet Union. Authoritative, compelling and meticulously researched, this is political history at its best.
©2016 Robert Service (P)2016 Oakhill Publishing
As the third son of the legendary Tsar Alexis, Peter the Great was never supposed to rule. But when his older brother died, the 10-year-old boy was proclaimed tsar by a cheering multitude outside the walls of the Kremlin. His destiny seemed assured-until a bloody rebellion erupted, forcing him to watch as his family was impaled and torn limb from limb by a mob of furious soldiers. From that day forward, Peter was determined to tear down the Old Muscovy and usher in a new Russia - dragging his backwards, traditional nobles into the 18th century by their long, bushy beards when necessary. He became the first tsar to sail the ocean and the first Romanov to visit Europe. Standing six foot, eight inches tall, Peter took Europe in his immense stride while laboring as a common carpenter in order to learn the skills he needed to modernize his army and build Russia's first navy. From his childhood adventures in Moscow's German quarter to his earth-shaking victory at the Battle of Poltava, where he singlehandedly broke the back of the Swedish empire, the life of Peter the Great was unlike that of any other man of his time.
©2016 Michael W. Simmons (P)2016 Michael W. Simmons
After the fall of communism, Russia was in a state of shock. The sudden and dramatic change left many people adrift and uncertainbut also full of a tentative but tenacious hope. Returning again and again to the provincial hinterlands of this rapidly evolving country from 1992 to 2008, Susan Richards struck up some extraordinary friendships with people in the middle of this historical drama. Anna, a questing journalist, struggles to express her passionate spirituality within the rules of the new society. Natasha, a restless spirit, has relocated from Siberia in a bid to escape the demands of her upper-class family and her own mysterious demons. Tatiana and Misha, whose business empire has blossomed from the ashes of the Soviet Union, seem, despite their luxury, uneasy in this new world. Richards watches them grow and change, their fortunes rise and fall, their hopes soar and crash.Through their stories and her own experiences, Susan Richards demonstrates how in Russia, the past and the present cannot be separated. She meets scientists convinced of the existence of UFOs and mind-control warfare. She visits a cult based on working the land and a tiny civilization founded on the practices of traditional Russian Orthodoxy. Gangsters, dreamers, artists, healers, all are wondering in their own ways, Who are we now if were not communist? What does it mean to be Russian? This remarkable history of contemporary Russia holds a mirror up to a forgotten people. Lost and Found in Russia is a magical and unforgettable portrait of a society in transition.
©2009 Susan Richards (P)2014 Audible, Inc.
In 1941 Hitler's armies blocked the last roads leading into Leningrad. What followed was one of the most horrific sieges in history. When the German High Command encircled Leningrad it was a deliberate policy to eradicate the city's civilian population by starving them to death. As winter set in and food supplies dwindled, starvation and panic set in. A specialist in battle psychology and the vital role of morale in desperate circumstances, Michael Jones tells the human story of Leningrad. Drawing on newly available eyewitness accounts and diaries, he shows Leningrad in its every dimension including taboo truths, long-suppressed by the Soviets, such as looting, criminal gangs and cannibalism. But for many ordinary citizens, Leningrad marked the triumph of the human spirit. They drew deeply on their inner resources to inspire, comfort and help one another. At the height of the siege an extraordinary live performance of Shostakovich's Seventh Symphony profoundly strengthened the city's will to resist. When German troops heard it in their trenches one remarked, "We began to understand we would never take Leningrad.' Yet Leningrad's self-defence came at a huge price. When the 900-day siege ended in 1944 almost a million people had died, and those who survived would be permanently marked by what they had endured, as this superbly insightful and moving history shows.
©2018 Michael Jones (P)2018 Hodder & Stoughton Limited
Antico sogno dell'uomo, nel dopoguerra la conquista della Luna divenne un obiettivo di interesse strategico e propagandistico per ciascuno dei due blocchi di qua e di là dalla Cortina di ferro: ultimo gradino d'una scalata allo spazio poggiata sull'esperienza degli scienziati nazisti e motivata dalle nuove esigenze militari. Grazie al genio di Serjei Korolëv i sovietici vinsero tutte le tappe di un'eroica epopea, ma sul traguardo dovettero arrendersi alla sorte e alla maggiore potenza degli americani.
©2019 Carocci Editore S.p.a. (P)2019 Audible Studios
Welcome to Gradieshti, a Soviet village awash in gray buildings and ramshackle fences, a home to a large, collective farm and to the most oddball and endearing cast of characters possible. For three years in the 1960s, Vladimir Tsesis - inestimable Soviet doctor and irrepressible jester - was stationed in a village where racing tractor drivers tossed vodka bottles to each other for sport; where farmers and townspeople secretly mocked and tried to endure the Communist way of life; where milk for children, running water, and adequate electricity were rare; where the world's smallest motley parade became the country's longest; and where one compulsively amorous Communist Party leader met a memorable, chilling fate. From a frantic pursuit of calcium-deprived, lunatic Socialist chickens to a father begging Soviet officials on his knees to obtain antibiotics for his dying child, Vladimir's tales of Gradieshti are unforgettable. Sometimes hysterical, often moving, always a remarkable and highly entertaining insider's look at rural life under the old Soviet regime, they are a sobering exposé of the terrible inadequacies of its much-lauded socialist medical system.
©2017 Vladimir A. Tsesis (P)2017 Blackstone Audio, Inc.
The Cuban missile crisis was the most dangerous confrontation of the Cold War and the most perilous moment in American history. In this dramatic narrative written especially for students and general listeners, Sheldon M. Stern, longtime historian at the John F. Kennedy Library, enables the listener to follow the often harrowing twists and turns of the crisis. Based on the author's authoritative transcriptions of the secretly recorded ExComm meetings, the book conveys the emotional ambiance of the meetings by capturing striking moments of tension and anger as well as occasional humorous intervals. Unlike today's readers, the participants did not have the luxury of knowing how this potentially catastrophic showdown would turn out, and their uncertainty often gives their discussions the nerve-racking quality of a fictional thriller. As President Kennedy told his advisers, "What we are doing is throwing down a card on the table in a game which we don't know the ending of." Stern documents that JFK and his administration bore a substantial share of the responsibility for the crisis. Covert operations in Cuba, including efforts to kill Fidel Castro, had convinced Nikita Khrushchev that only the deployment of nuclear weapons could protect Cuba from imminent attack. However, President Kennedy, a seasoned Cold Warrior in public, was deeply suspicious of military solutions to political problems and appalled by the prospect of nuclear war. He consistently steered policy makers away from an apocalyptic nuclear conflict, measuring each move and countermove with an eye to averting what he called, with stark eloquence, "the final failure." The book is published by Stanford University Press.
©2005 the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University (P)2012 Redwood Audiobooks
John Mosier presents a revisionist retelling of the war on the Eastern Front. Although the Eastern Front was the biggest and most important theater in World War II, it is not well known in the United States, as no American troops participated in the fighting. Yet historians agree that this is where the decisive battles of the war were fought. The conventional wisdom about the Eastern Front is that Hitler was mad to think he could defeat the USSR, because of its vast size and population, and that the Battle of Stalingrad marked the turning point of the war. Neither statement is accurate, says Mosier; Hitler came very close to winning outright. Mosier's history of the Eastern Front will generate considerable controversy, both because of his unconventional arguments and because he criticizes historians who have accepted Soviet facts and interpretations. Mosier argues that Soviet accounts are utterly untrustworthy and that accounts relying on them are fantasies. Deathride argues that the war in the East was Hitler's to lose, that Stalin was in grave jeopardy from the outset of the war, and that it was the Allied victories in North Africa and consequent threat to Italy that forced Hitler to change his plans and saved Stalin from near-certain defeat. Stalin's only real triumph was in creating a legend of victory.
©2010 John Mosier (P)2010 Tantor
Une étude complète et sérieuse de ce qu'était l'URSS de 1933 sous la coupe de Josef Staline. En se rendant sur place Victor Boret analyse le bochevisme et tous les aspects de l'URSS de cette époque.
©1933 QUILLET (P)2020 Ecouter pour comprendre
The Romanov family ruled as tsars and emperors of all Russia for just over 300 years - 19 men and women in total, some of them brilliant, some of them mad, most of them somewhere in between. The story of the Romanovs begins in Moscow in 1613, and ends in Ekaterinburg in 1918, at the beginning of a revolution, where Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra, and their five children were slaughtered by a Soviet death squad. In this book, you will learn about the lives and reigns of each Romanov emperor and empress. Hear about Peter the Great, who kept company with peasants and pie sellers but had his own son tortured to death; Catherine the Great, who finally convinced Europe that there was more to be found in the far north than just snow and barbarians; Alexander I, the gallant emperor who famously defeated Napoleon in 1812; Alexander II, who freed the serfs and survived five assassination attempts before perishing in the sixth; and Nicholas II, who ended the Romanov dynasty in 1917 when he abdicated the throne on behalf of himself and his son, the hemophiliac Alexei, who would never be emperor but is now considered a saint.
©2016 Michael W. Simmons (P)2016 Michael W. Simmons
The 17th century was marked by multiple pro-democratic revolutions exploding in both hemispheres. In Europe and its neighbors to the east, border-changing wars were fought incessantly. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the underlying premises of political, governmental and social structures within several European and Asian states were shaken to the core after centuries of royalty and one-family rule. By the onset of World War I, royal families began to experience a long, slow decline, with some quietly fading into the status of national symbols and others experiencing political overthrow. Some were horrified by the suddenness of a changing public, while others barely noticed. In the ensuing chaos brought about by the Great War, the last ruling family in Russia suffered the most brutal form of regime change at the hands of the Bolsheviks following a revolution in 1917, as the public outcry for individual equality mirrored the violence of the French Revolution from a prior century. The Romanov dynasty, which had enjoyed unbroken control over the throne since the early 1600s, represented a dilemma for a dissatisfied and restless workforce that nevertheless viewed the royal family through the lens of an ancient mystique. The modern Romanov saga was rife with intrigue, including the exploits of and mystique surrounding Grigory Rasputin, suspicion directed toward the German roots of Tsarina Alexandra, and fascination with the almost beatified children of the Tsar, their image buoyed by the powerful new medium of photography. When this mystical and fictitious portrait of the beloved ruler and happy peasant collided with Lenins Bolshevik uprising, a movement largely devoid of mercy or sentiment, the pathos of the Romanov executions was felt all the more deeply around the world, and it has remained a topic of intense inquiry well into the following century. At the same time, gossip surrounding their fates, particularly that of the lost Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna, have ensured that the Romanovs remain relevant nearly a century after their downfall.
©2016 Charles River Editors (P)2016 Charles River Editors
History for busy people. Listen to a concise history of the Siege of Leningrad in just one hour. In 1917 the world changed forever. One of the most influential and contentious events in recent history, the Russian Revolution unleashed the greatest political experiment ever conducted, one which continues to influence both Eastern and Western politics today. The Russian Revolution: History in an Hour neatly covers all the major facts and events giving you a clear and straightforward overview: from the circumstances behind the rise of Lenin and the Bolsheviks, to the consequences of their struggle for a new socialist utopia. The Russian Revolution: History in an Hour is engagingly written and accessible for all history lovers. Love your history? Find out about the world with History in an Hour
©2012 Rupert Colley (P)2012 HarperCollins Publishers Limited
What are the causes of the famine? The main reason for the catastrophe in Russian agriculture is the Soviet policy of collectivization. The prophecy of Paul Scheffer in 1920-30 that collectivization of agriculture would be the nemesis of Communism has come absolutely true. (Gareth Jones) Famine - one of the four horsemen of the apocalypse in the Book of Revelation - continues to be one of the most crippling and destructive scourges of humanity. This inexorable affliction, traumatically fatal in the worst-case scenarios, has terrorized every single continent at some point throughout history, some more so than others. Perhaps the most famous was the notorious Irish Potato Famine of 1845, during which a noxious, fungus-like microorganism known as the Phytophthora infestans destroyed half of Ireland's potatoes and three-fourths of the crop in the following seven years, resulting in the deaths of 1.5 million and the forced migration of some two million citizens. The catastrophic Bengal Famine of 1943, which was precipitated by a dreadful cyclone and tidal waves the previous year, led to the deaths of an estimated seven million Bengalis. Among some of historys famines, the Holodomors death toll is considerably lower than others, such as the the Chalisa and South India Famines between 1782 to 1784, which killed roughly 11 million people altogether, or the Chinese Famine of 1907, which claimed up to 25 million lives in northern China. The Holodomor, however, which ravaged Ukraine between 1932 and 1933, was not a natural occurrence, but a ghastly man-made famine brought about by Stalinist policies. When Ukraine was incorporated into the Soviet Union, communist ideology was enforced on every part of society, religion was effectively prohibited, and dissenters were sent to the Gulag prison camps. The church was an early target for the communists, as many buildings and religious icons were vandalized and believers were mocked. As awful as that all was, Stalins economic plans were especially disastrous for Ukrainians. This Holomodor, calculatedly inflicted to serve the dictator's agenda, as well as to suppress Ukrainian nationalism and stamp out those who dared resist the regime, consequently resulted in the avoidable deaths of anywhere between 3.9 million and 10 million Ukrainian civilians. It was equivalent to roughly 25 percent of the population, a third of them children, and the victims all died in less than two years. One historian of the Soviet Union, Anne Applebaum, charted these events in her book Red Famine, concluding that the Soviet Unions disastrous decision to force peasants to give up their land and join collective farms; the eviction of kulaks, the wealthier peasants, from their homes; the chaos that followed - these policies were all ultimately the responsibility of Joseph Stalin, the General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party. While Ukrainians marked this tragedy as the Holodomor (a composite of the Ukrainian words hunger (holod) and extermination (mor)), and the modern Ukrainian state recognized the period as a genocide in 2006, the Holomodor was deliberately swept under the rug for several decades. As a result, it remains widely unacknowledged to this day, and the nature of the famine - particularly whether it should be considered a genocide - is still debated by scholars. The Holodomor: The History and Legacy of the Ukrainian Famine Engineered by the Soviet Union examines the events that brought about the famine and its terrible toll.
©2020 Charles River Editors (P)2020 Charles River Editors